Effects of commonly used benzodiazepines on the fetus, the neonate, and the nursing infant.

@article{Iqbal2002EffectsOC,
  title={Effects of commonly used benzodiazepines on the fetus, the neonate, and the nursing infant.},
  author={M. M. Iqbal and T. Sobhan and T. Ryals},
  journal={Psychiatric services},
  year={2002},
  volume={53 1},
  pages={
          39-49
        }
}
OBJECTIVE Despite the widespread use of benzodiazepines during pregnancy and lactation, little information is available about their effect on the developing fetus and on nursing infants. The authors review what is currently known about the effects of benzodiazepine therapy on the fetus and on nursing infants. METHODS A MEDLINE search of the literature between 1966 and 2000 was conducted with the terms "benzodiazepines," "diazepam," "chlordiazepoxide," "clonazepam," "lorazepam," "alprazolam… Expand
Benzodiazepine exposure in pregnancy and risk of major malformations: a critical overview.
TLDR
Benzodiazepines (BDZs) safety profiles in pregnancy suggest that the risk of major malformations (MMs) cannot be considered simply as a "class effect", and Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide should be considered drugs of first choice. Expand
Diazepam and its metabolites in the mothers' and newborns' hair as a biomarker of prenatal exposure.
TLDR
Diazepam and its metabolites determined in hair of newborns may serve as biomarkers of prenatal exposure to these drugs and confirm that these benzodiazepines permeate placental barrier. Expand
Benzodiazepines and Z-Drugs in Pregnancy
TLDR
The aim of this chapter is to briefly present the best recent studies focusing on the risks of major malformations (MMs) and perinatal complications (PCs) in newborns of pregnant women exposed to BZDs and Z-drugs during pregnancy. Expand
Clonazepam use in pregnancy and the risk of malformations.
TLDR
This study did not observe an increase in major malformations in births exposed to clonazepam monotherapy, and the number of patients in this series was larger than previous reports, so continued monitoring of pregnancies is needed to determine whether or not clonzepam is teratogenic. Expand
The Teratogenic Effects of Flurazepam Intake during Organogenesis of the Rat Fetus
TLDR
The statistical results indicate that flurazepam intake during the second half of pregnancy can lead to irreversible anomalies, and it seems that benzodiazepine therapy among pregnant woman would be better to avoid during the first trimester and multidrug regimens. Expand
Use of Prescribed Psychotropics during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Pregnancy, Neonatal, and Childhood Outcomes
TLDR
A comprehensive review of the recent results and conclusions of original research and reviews, respectively, which have investigated the short- and long-term impact of drugs commonly prescribed to pregnant women for psychological disorders, including mood, anxiety, and sleep disorders. Expand
A review of sleep-promoting medications used in pregnancy.
TLDR
Overall, the examined studies showed no correlation of increased risk of congenital malformations, however, benzodiazepines and hypnotic Benzodiazepine receptor agonists may increase rates of preterm birth, low birthweight, and/or small-for-gestational-age infants. Expand
Antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotics in pregnancy and lactation
TLDR
Appropriate risk-benefit analysis of untreated mental illness versus medication exposure, tailor-made to each patient's past response and preference within in the context of the available evidence should guide clinical decision making. Expand
A comprehensive review of assay methods to determine drugs in breast milk and the safety of breastfeeding when taking drugs
TLDR
The analytical methods developed to detect different drugs in the breast milk are reported, listing the principal characteristics and validation parameters, advantages and disadvantges, and suggested harm minimization strategies and approved breastfeeding recommendations are indicated. Expand
Epidemiology of the Use of Psychotropic Drugs in Pregnant and Nursing Women
TLDR
Antidepressants account for the majority of prescribed psychotropic medications for women in the perinatal period and are indicated for a variety of conditions, other than depression. Expand
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