The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) manifests most of the features of function and morphology in the senile lung with aging. However, little is known about the effects of age and cigarette smoke on alterations of the lung in SAM. In the present study, we examined the effects of chronic cigarette smoke inhalation and age on the function and morphology of lungs in two strains of SAM, SAMP2 (senescence-prone strain) and SAMR1 (senescence-resistant strain), from 6 months of age (young) and 18 months of age (aged). After 4 weeks of cigarette smoke inhalation, a small but significant airspace along with a leftward shift of the pressure-volume (P-V) curve was observed in young SAMP2, but not in SAMR1. However, the airspace size of young SAMP2 with cigarette inhalation was smaller than that in aged SAM with air inhalation, suggesting that the effect of age may be greater than that of the small burder of tobacco smoke on the lung alterations in SAMP2. In the aged SAM, there were no differences in function and structure between tobacco-exposed and air-exposed mice. Because the changes in the lungs of young SAMP2 exposed to cigarette smoke were partly simulated with age-related alterations in human lung, and because age-dependent changes of lungs were clearly investigated in SAMP2, this strain may be an interesting animal model for investigating the effects of age and/or cigarette smoke on alterations in lung structure and function.