Effects of chewing gum on cognitive function, mood and physiology in stressed and non-stressed volunteers

@article{Smith2010EffectsOC,
  title={Effects of chewing gum on cognitive function, mood and physiology in stressed and non-stressed volunteers},
  author={Andrew P. Smith},
  journal={Nutritional Neuroscience},
  year={2010},
  volume={13},
  pages={16 - 7}
}
  • Andrew P. Smith
  • Published 1 February 2010
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Nutritional Neuroscience
Abstract Rationale: Recent research suggests that chewing gum may improve aspects of cognitive function and mood. There is also evidence suggesting that chewing gum reduces stress. It is important, therefore, to examine these two areas and to determine whether contextual factors (chewing habit, type of gum, and personality) modify such effects. Objectives: The aims of the present study were: (i) to determine whether chewing gum improved mood and mental performance; (ii) to determine whether… 
Effects of chewing gum on mood, learning, memory and performance of an intelligence test
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Chewing gum improved the accuracy of performing the Alice Heim test which confirms the benefits of gum on test performance seen in an earlier study and suggests further research on the alerting effects of chewing gum and possible improved test performance in these situations.
EFFECT OF CHEWING GUM ON COGNITION AND BEHAVIOURAL ATTRIBUTES
Background: Chewing gum has multidimensional effects on the body that work in harmony to improve one’s abilities. The present study was aimed to focus at the authenticity of the myth that chewing
Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology
TLDR
Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance.
Chewing gum's effects on alertness, performance and stress
Chewing gum has previously been found to reduce chronic stress and enhance alertness, but effects on attention have been less reliable. The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible mechanisms
EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE IN CHEWING GUM ON MOOD AND PERFORMANCE AT DIFFERENT TIMES OF DAY
Background: Most research on caffeine has given it in beverages or capsules. Recently, caffeinated chewing gum has been produced and this leads to very rapid absorption and positive behavioural
Chewing gum modifies state anxiety and alertness under conditions of social stress
TLDR
The findings indicate that chewing gum can act to reduce anxiety under conditions of acute social stress: a finding consistent with Scholey et al. (2013).
The contrasting physiological and subjective effects of chewing gum on social stress
TLDR
The present study used the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) to examine the moderating physiological and subjective effects of chewing gum on social stress and suggested that chewing gum only benefits subjective measures of stress.
Cognitive advantages of chewing gum. Now you see them, now you don’t
TLDR
It is proposed that the time-limited nature of performance benefits can be attributed to mastication-induced arousal, and the lack of improvement in cognitive function when gum is chewed throughout testing may be because of interference effects due to a sharing of resources by cognitive and masticatory processes.
Chewing gum moderates multi-task induced shifts in stress, mood, and alertness. A re-examination
TLDR
Contrary to Scholey et al. (2009), chewing gum failed to attenuate both salivary cortisol levels and the increase in self-rated stress, and chewing gum was shown to increase alertness following the stressor.
Do Individual Differences Moderate the Cognitive Benefits of Chewing Gum
Recent experiments investigating whether chewing gum enhances cognitive performance have shown mixed results and a recent replication failed to reproduce earlier findings. The present experiment
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References

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Effects of chewing gum on mood, learning, memory and performance of an intelligence test
TLDR
Chewing gum improved the accuracy of performing the Alice Heim test which confirms the benefits of gum on test performance seen in an earlier study and suggests further research on the alerting effects of chewing gum and possible improved test performance in these situations.
Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects
TLDR
The results of this study indicated that chewing a piece of gum results in an improvement of working memory and of both immediate and delayed recall of words but not of attention, and claims that the chewing a gum improves cognition should be viewed with caution.
Impact of gum chewing on stress levels: online self-perception research study
TLDR
The findings point to a relationship between decreased stress and gum chewing and suggest chewing gum may help reduce perceived levels of everyday stress.
Chewing gum, stress and health
TLDR
Chewing gum was associated with lower levels of perceived stress and those who chewed gum were less likely to be depressed and to have seen their doctor for high blood pressure or high cholesterol.
Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress
TLDR
During both levels of stress the chewing gum condition was associated with significantly better alertness and reduced state anxiety, stress and salivary cortisol, and overall performance on the framework was also significantly better in the chewing condition.
Role of glucose in chewing gum-related facilitation of cognitive function
TLDR
The glucose delivery model is supported with respect to the cognitive domains: working memory, immediate episodic long-term memory and language-based attention and processing speed, however, some other mechanism is more likely to underlie the facilitatory effect of chewing gum on delayed episodicLong-termMemory.
Chewing gum selectively improves aspects of memory in healthy volunteers
TLDR
The effects of chewing gum was examined using acomprehensive and sensitive cognitive assessment battery and two tasks manipulating cognitive load, and heart rateresponses were also measured.
Chewing gum and context dependent memory: The independent roles of chewing gum and mint flavour
TLDR
No context-dependent memory effect was found with either flavourless gum or mint-flavoured strips, indicating that independently the contexts were insufficiently salient to induce the effect.
Effects of regular alcohol intake and stress on mental performance, mood and cardiovascular function
An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of alcohol consumption and stress on mood, mental performance and cardiovascular function. One hundred and six young adults (mean age 21.2 years)
Chewing gum and context-dependent memory effects: A re-examination
TLDR
Two experiments re-examined whether chewing spearmint gum affects initial word learning and/or immediate recall for a word list and found that chewing gum of itself is not a sufficient condition to provoke context-dependent learning with immediate testing.
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