Effects of changes in segmental values and timing of both torque and torque reversal in simulated throws.


An overarm throw in the sagittal plane was simulated using a three-segment model representing the upper arm, forearm and hand plus ball. Torque inputs at each joint were turned on at systematically varied times and maintained constant once initiated. All simulations began from identical initial conditions. The aim was to determine the sequence of onset of… (More)