Effects of castration, tooth resection, or tail docking on plasma metabolites and stress hormones in young pigs.


Changes in the activity of the sympathetic nervous system or in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis have been extensively used to evaluate pain induced by castration or tail docking in numerous species. Such data are missing in pigs. Therefore, three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of castration, tail docking, or tooth resection on… (More)


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