Effects of boron deficiency on major metabolites, key enzymes and gas exchange in leaves and roots of Citrus sinensis seedlings.

@article{Lu2014EffectsOB,
  title={Effects of boron deficiency on major metabolites, key enzymes and gas exchange in leaves and roots of Citrus sinensis seedlings.},
  author={Yi-bin Lu and Lin-Tong Yang and Yan Juan Li and Jing Xu and Tian-Tai Liao and Yan-Bin Chen and Li-Song Chen},
  journal={Tree physiology},
  year={2014},
  volume={34 6},
  pages={608-18}
}
Boron (B) deficiency is a widespread problem in many crops, including Citrus. The effects of B-deficiency on gas exchange, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, total soluble proteins and phenolics, and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in 'Xuegan' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] leaves and roots were investigated. Boron-deficient leaves displayed excessive accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates and much lower CO2 assimilation… CONTINUE READING

Connections & Topics

Mentioned Connections BETA
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Also , total free amino acid ( TFAA ) concentration and related enzyme [ i.e. , NADH - dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase ( NADH - GOGAT ) and glutamate OAA transaminase ( GOT ) ] activities were enhanced in B - deficient leaves .
Also , total free amino acid ( TFAA ) concentration and related enzyme [ i.e. , NADH - dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase ( NADH - GOGAT ) and glutamate OAA transaminase ( GOT ) ] activities were enhanced in B - deficient leaves .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
In conclusion , respiration , organic acid ( i.e. , glycolysis and the TCA cycle ) metabolism , the anapleurotic pathway and amino acid biosynthesis were upregulated in B - deficient leaves with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates to ' consume ' the excessive carbon available , but downregulated in B - deficient roots with less accumulation of carbohydrates to maintain the net carbon balance .
In conclusion , respiration , organic acid ( i.e. , glycolysis and the TCA cycle ) metabolism , the anapleurotic pathway and amino acid biosynthesis were upregulated in B - deficient leaves with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates to ' consume ' the excessive carbon available , but downregulated in B - deficient roots with less accumulation of carbohydrates to maintain the net carbon balance .
In conclusion , respiration , organic acid ( i.e. , glycolysis and the TCA cycle ) metabolism , the anapleurotic pathway and amino acid biosynthesis were upregulated in B - deficient leaves with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates to ' consume ' the excessive carbon available , but downregulated in B - deficient roots with less accumulation of carbohydrates to maintain the net carbon balance .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
In conclusion , respiration , organic acid ( i.e. , glycolysis and the TCA cycle ) metabolism , the anapleurotic pathway and amino acid biosynthesis were upregulated in B - deficient leaves with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates to ' consume ' the excessive carbon available , but downregulated in B - deficient roots with less accumulation of carbohydrates to maintain the net carbon balance .
Also , total free amino acid ( TFAA ) concentration and related enzyme [ i.e. , NADH - dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase ( NADH - GOGAT ) and glutamate OAA transaminase ( GOT ) ] activities were enhanced in B - deficient leaves .
Also , total free amino acid ( TFAA ) concentration and related enzyme [ i.e. , NADH - dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase ( NADH - GOGAT ) and glutamate OAA transaminase ( GOT ) ] activities were enhanced in B - deficient leaves .
Amino AcidsChemical structure ofGlutamic Acid
Also , total free amino acid ( TFAA ) concentration and related enzyme [ i.e. , NADH - dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase ( NADH - GOGAT ) and glutamate OAA transaminase ( GOT ) ] activities were enhanced in B - deficient leaves .
Also , total free amino acid ( TFAA ) concentration and related enzyme [ i.e. , NADH - dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase ( NADH - GOGAT ) and glutamate OAA transaminase ( GOT ) ] activities were enhanced in B - deficient leaves .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
In conclusion , respiration , organic acid ( i.e. , glycolysis and the TCA cycle ) metabolism , the anapleurotic pathway and amino acid biosynthesis were upregulated in B - deficient leaves with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates to ' consume ' the excessive carbon available , but downregulated in B - deficient roots with less accumulation of carbohydrates to maintain the net carbon balance .
In conclusion , respiration , organic acid ( i.e. , glycolysis and the TCA cycle ) metabolism , the anapleurotic pathway and amino acid biosynthesis were upregulated in B - deficient leaves with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates to ' consume ' the excessive carbon available , but downregulated in B - deficient roots with less accumulation of carbohydrates to maintain the net carbon balance .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
Also , total free amino acid ( TFAA ) concentration and related enzyme [ i.e. , NADH - dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase ( NADH - GOGAT ) and glutamate OAA transaminase ( GOT ) ] activities were enhanced in B - deficient leaves .
Also , total free amino acid ( TFAA ) concentration and related enzyme [ i.e. , NADH - dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase ( NADH - GOGAT ) and glutamate OAA transaminase ( GOT ) ] activities were enhanced in B - deficient leaves .
Also , total free amino acid ( TFAA ) concentration and related enzyme [ i.e. , NADH - dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase ( NADH - GOGAT ) and glutamate OAA transaminase ( GOT ) ] activities were enhanced in B - deficient leaves .
Also , total free amino acid ( TFAA ) concentration and related enzyme [ i.e. , NADH - dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase ( NADH - GOGAT ) and glutamate OAA transaminase ( GOT ) ] activities were enhanced in B - deficient leaves .
Also , total free amino acid ( TFAA ) concentration and related enzyme [ i.e. , NADH - dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase ( NADH - GOGAT ) and glutamate OAA transaminase ( GOT ) ] activities were enhanced in B - deficient leaves .
Also , total free amino acid ( TFAA ) concentration and related enzyme [ i.e. , NADH - dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase ( NADH - GOGAT ) and glutamate OAA transaminase ( GOT ) ] activities were enhanced in B - deficient leaves .
Also , total free amino acid ( TFAA ) concentration and related enzyme [ i.e. , NADH - dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase ( NADH - GOGAT ) and glutamate OAA transaminase ( GOT ) ] activities were enhanced in B - deficient leaves .
Also , total free amino acid ( TFAA ) concentration and related enzyme [ i.e. , NADH - dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase ( NADH - GOGAT ) and glutamate OAA transaminase ( GOT ) ] activities were enhanced in B - deficient leaves .
CarbohydratesChemical or drug is product of biological processPhotosynthesis
Boron - deficient leaves displayed excessive accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates and much lower CO2 assimilation , demonstrating feedback inhibition of photosynthesis .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
In conclusion , respiration , organic acid ( i.e. , glycolysis and the TCA cycle ) metabolism , the anapleurotic pathway and amino acid biosynthesis were upregulated in B - deficient leaves with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates to ' consume ' the excessive carbon available , but downregulated in B - deficient roots with less accumulation of carbohydrates to maintain the net carbon balance .
By contrast , respiration , concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids ( malate , citrate and pyruvate ) , and activities of most enzymes [ i.e. , PEPC , NADP - ME , PK , PEPP , CS , ACO , NAD - isocitrate dehydrogenase , NADP - IDH and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction , as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes ( i.e. , nitrate reductase , NADH - GOGAT , glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase ) were lower in B - deficient roots than in controls .
In conclusion , respiration , organic acid ( i.e. , glycolysis and the TCA cycle ) metabolism , the anapleurotic pathway and amino acid biosynthesis were upregulated in B - deficient leaves with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates to ' consume ' the excessive carbon available , but downregulated in B - deficient roots with less accumulation of carbohydrates to maintain the net carbon balance .
By contrast , respiration , concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids ( malate , citrate and pyruvate ) , and activities of most enzymes [ i.e. , PEPC , NADP - ME , PK , PEPP , CS , ACO , NAD - isocitrate dehydrogenase , NADP - IDH and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction , as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes ( i.e. , nitrate reductase , NADH - GOGAT , glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase ) were lower in B - deficient roots than in controls .
By contrast , respiration , concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids ( malate , citrate and pyruvate ) , and activities of most enzymes [ i.e. , PEPC , NADP - ME , PK , PEPP , CS , ACO , NAD - isocitrate dehydrogenase , NADP - IDH and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction , as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes ( i.e. , nitrate reductase , NADH - GOGAT , glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase ) were lower in B - deficient roots than in controls .
By contrast , respiration , concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids ( malate , citrate and pyruvate ) , and activities of most enzymes [ i.e. , PEPC , NADP - ME , PK , PEPP , CS , ACO , NAD - isocitrate dehydrogenase , NADP - IDH and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction , as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes ( i.e. , nitrate reductase , NADH - GOGAT , glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase ) were lower in B - deficient roots than in controls .
By contrast , respiration , concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids ( malate , citrate and pyruvate ) , and activities of most enzymes [ i.e. , PEPC , NADP - ME , PK , PEPP , CS , ACO , NAD - isocitrate dehydrogenase , NADP - IDH and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction , as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes ( i.e. , nitrate reductase , NADH - GOGAT , glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase ) were lower in B - deficient roots than in controls .
By contrast , respiration , concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids ( malate , citrate and pyruvate ) , and activities of most enzymes [ i.e. , PEPC , NADP - ME , PK , PEPP , CS , ACO , NAD - isocitrate dehydrogenase , NADP - IDH and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction , as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes ( i.e. , nitrate reductase , NADH - GOGAT , glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase ) were lower in B - deficient roots than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
By contrast , respiration , concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids ( malate , citrate and pyruvate ) , and activities of most enzymes [ i.e. , PEPC , NADP - ME , PK , PEPP , CS , ACO , NAD - isocitrate dehydrogenase , NADP - IDH and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction , as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes ( i.e. , nitrate reductase , NADH - GOGAT , glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase ) were lower in B - deficient roots than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
By contrast , respiration , concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids ( malate , citrate and pyruvate ) , and activities of most enzymes [ i.e. , PEPC , NADP - ME , PK , PEPP , CS , ACO , NAD - isocitrate dehydrogenase , NADP - IDH and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction , as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes ( i.e. , nitrate reductase , NADH - GOGAT , glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase ) were lower in B - deficient roots than in controls .
By contrast , respiration , concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids ( malate , citrate and pyruvate ) , and activities of most enzymes [ i.e. , PEPC , NADP - ME , PK , PEPP , CS , ACO , NAD - isocitrate dehydrogenase , NADP - IDH and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction , as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes ( i.e. , nitrate reductase , NADH - GOGAT , glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase ) were lower in B - deficient roots than in controls .
By contrast , respiration , concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids ( malate , citrate and pyruvate ) , and activities of most enzymes [ i.e. , PEPC , NADP - ME , PK , PEPP , CS , ACO , NAD - isocitrate dehydrogenase , NADP - IDH and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction , as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes ( i.e. , nitrate reductase , NADH - GOGAT , glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase ) were lower in B - deficient roots than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
By contrast , respiration , concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids ( malate , citrate and pyruvate ) , and activities of most enzymes [ i.e. , PEPC , NADP - ME , PK , PEPP , CS , ACO , NAD - isocitrate dehydrogenase , NADP - IDH and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction , as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes ( i.e. , nitrate reductase , NADH - GOGAT , glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase ) were lower in B - deficient roots than in controls .
By contrast , respiration , concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids ( malate , citrate and pyruvate ) , and activities of most enzymes [ i.e. , PEPC , NADP - ME , PK , PEPP , CS , ACO , NAD - isocitrate dehydrogenase , NADP - IDH and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction , as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes ( i.e. , nitrate reductase , NADH - GOGAT , glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase ) were lower in B - deficient roots than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
By contrast , respiration , concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids ( malate , citrate and pyruvate ) , and activities of most enzymes [ i.e. , PEPC , NADP - ME , PK , PEPP , CS , ACO , NAD - isocitrate dehydrogenase , NADP - IDH and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction , as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes ( i.e. , nitrate reductase , NADH - GOGAT , glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase ) were lower in B - deficient roots than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
By contrast , respiration , concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids ( malate , citrate and pyruvate ) , and activities of most enzymes [ i.e. , PEPC , NADP - ME , PK , PEPP , CS , ACO , NAD - isocitrate dehydrogenase , NADP - IDH and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction , as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes ( i.e. , nitrate reductase , NADH - GOGAT , glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase ) were lower in B - deficient roots than in controls .
By contrast , respiration , concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids ( malate , citrate and pyruvate ) , and activities of most enzymes [ i.e. , PEPC , NADP - ME , PK , PEPP , CS , ACO , NAD - isocitrate dehydrogenase , NADP - IDH and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction , as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes ( i.e. , nitrate reductase , NADH - GOGAT , glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase ) were lower in B - deficient roots than in controls .
By contrast , respiration , concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids ( malate , citrate and pyruvate ) , and activities of most enzymes [ i.e. , PEPC , NADP - ME , PK , PEPP , CS , ACO , NAD - isocitrate dehydrogenase , NADP - IDH and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction , as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes ( i.e. , nitrate reductase , NADH - GOGAT , glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase ) were lower in B - deficient roots than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
Dark respiration , concentrations of most organic acids [ i.e. , malate , citrate , oxaloacetate ( OAA ) , pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate ] and activities of enzymes [ i.e. , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC ) , NAD - malate dehydrogenase , NAD - malic enzyme ( NAD - ME ) , NADP - ME , pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase ( PEPP ) , citrate synthase ( CS ) , aconitase ( ACO ) , NADP - isocitrate dehydrogenase ( NADP - IDH ) and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid ( TCA ) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B - deficient leaves than in controls .
By contrast , respiration , concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids ( malate , citrate and pyruvate ) , and activities of most enzymes [ i.e. , PEPC , NADP - ME , PK , PEPP , CS , ACO , NAD - isocitrate dehydrogenase , NADP - IDH and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction , as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes ( i.e. , nitrate reductase , NADH - GOGAT , glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase ) were lower in B - deficient roots than in controls .
By contrast , respiration , concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids ( malate , citrate and pyruvate ) , and activities of most enzymes [ i.e. , PEPC , NADP - ME , PK , PEPP , CS , ACO , NAD - isocitrate dehydrogenase , NADP - IDH and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction , as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes ( i.e. , nitrate reductase , NADH - GOGAT , glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase ) were lower in B - deficient roots than in controls .
Also , total free amino acid ( TFAA ) concentration and related enzyme [ i.e. , NADH - dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase ( NADH - GOGAT ) and glutamate OAA transaminase ( GOT ) ] activities were enhanced in B - deficient leaves .
Also , total free amino acid ( TFAA ) concentration and related enzyme [ i.e. , NADH - dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase ( NADH - GOGAT ) and glutamate OAA transaminase ( GOT ) ] activities were enhanced in B - deficient leaves .
By contrast , respiration , concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids ( malate , citrate and pyruvate ) , and activities of most enzymes [ i.e. , PEPC , NADP - ME , PK , PEPP , CS , ACO , NAD - isocitrate dehydrogenase , NADP - IDH and hexokinase ] involved in glycolysis , the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction , as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes ( i.e. , nitrate reductase , NADH - GOGAT , glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase ) were lower in B - deficient roots than in controls .
Effects of boron deficiency on major metabolites , key enzymes and gas exchange in leaves and roots of Citrus sinensis seedlings .
Effects of boron deficiency on major metabolites , key enzymes and gas exchange in leaves and roots of Citrus sinensis seedlings .
In conclusion , respiration , organic acid ( i.e. , glycolysis and the TCA cycle ) metabolism , the anapleurotic pathway and amino acid biosynthesis were upregulated in B - deficient leaves with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates to ' consume ' the excessive carbon available , but downregulated in B - deficient roots with less accumulation of carbohydrates to maintain the net carbon balance .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
In conclusion , respiration , organic acid ( i.e. , glycolysis and the TCA cycle ) metabolism , the anapleurotic pathway and amino acid biosynthesis were upregulated in B - deficient leaves with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates to ' consume ' the excessive carbon available , but downregulated in B - deficient roots with less accumulation of carbohydrates to maintain the net carbon balance .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
The effects of B - deficiency on gas exchange , carbohydrates , organic acids , amino acids , total soluble proteins and phenolics , and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in ' Xuegan ' [ Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck ] leaves and roots were investigated .
All Topics