Effects of biodiversity on the functioning of trophic groups and ecosystems

  title={Effects of biodiversity on the functioning of trophic groups and ecosystems},
  author={Bradley J. Cardinale and Diane S. Srivastava and J. Emmett Duffy and Justin P. Wright and Amy L Downing and Mahesh Sankaran and Claire Jouseau},
Over the past decade, accelerating rates of species extinction have prompted an increasing number of studies to reduce species diversity experimentally and examine how this alters the efficiency by which communities capture resources and convert those into biomass. So far, the generality of patterns and processes observed in individual studies have been the subjects of considerable debate. Here we present a formal meta-analysis of studies that have experimentally manipulated species diversity… 
The functional role of producer diversity in ecosystems.
Several new questions must now be addressed if this field is going to evolve into a predictive science that can help conserve and manage ecological processes in ecosystems, including questions about how primary producer diversity influences the efficiency of resource use and biomass production in ecosystems.
The functional consequences of the biodiversity: Experimental studies with intertidal communities
The experiment shows that Species identity was the most of the relevant effect on assemblages functioning the higher productivity and efficiency values were found for Sargassum muticum, and Bifurcaria bifurcata seems to be the species with lower overall performance.
Effects of species diversity on community biomass production change over the course of succession.
The results suggest that the effects of algal diversity on primary production change in a predictable sequence through successional time.
Impacts of plant diversity on biomass production increase through time because of species complementarity
It is shown that although productive species do indeed contribute to diversity effects, these contributions are equaled or exceeded by species complementarity, where biomass is augmented by biological processes that involve multiple species.
Understanding the Effects of Marine Biodiversity on Communities and Ecosystems
Multitrophic-level studies indicate that, relative to depauperate assemblages of prey species, diverse ones are more resistant to top-down control, use their own resources more completely, and increase consumer fitness.
Evolutionary history and the effect of biodiversity on plant productivity
It is shown that the amount of phylogenetic diversity within communities explained significantly more variation in plant community biomass than other measures of diversity, such as the number of species or functional groups.
Biodiversity at multiple trophic levels is needed for ecosystem multifunctionality
It is demonstrated that primary producers, herbivorous insects and microbial decomposers seem to be particularly important drivers of ecosystem functioning, as shown by the strong and frequent positive associations of their richness or abundance with multiple ecosystem services.
Marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: what’s known and what’s next?
It is suggested that changes in the number of species will, on average, tend to alter the functioning of marine ecosystems, and the loss of species may have stronger consequences for some processes than others.
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning
Species diversity is a major determinant of ecosystem productivity, stability, invasibility, and nutrient dynamics. Hundreds of studies spanning terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems show that
Biodiversity simultaneously enhances the production and stability of community biomass, but the effects are independent.
The reanalysis of data from 34 experiments that have manipulated the richness of terrestrial plants or aquatic algae and measured how this aspect of biodiversity affects community biomass at multiple time points confirms that biodiversity does indeed simultaneously enhance both the production and stability of biomass in experimental systems.


Effects of species diversity on the primary productivity of ecosystems: extending our spatial and temporal scales of inference
A simple patch-dynamics model is developed to examine some of the scale-dependent and independent qualities of the diversity-productivity relationship and concludes that the relative control of community structure by local versus regional processes may be a primary determinant of the Diversity-Productivity relationship in natural ecosystems.
Understanding this complexity, while taking strong steps to minimize current losses of species, is necessary for responsible management of Earth's ecosystems and the diverse biota they contain.
Consistent patterns and the idiosyncratic effects of biodiversity in marine ecosystems
Variable diversity effects for species representative of marine coastal systems at both global and regional scales are demonstrated and evidence for an increase in complementary resource use as diversity increases and strong evidence for diversity effects in naturally assembled communities at a regional scale is shown.
Partitioning selection and complementarity in biodiversity experiments
The selection effect is zero on average and varies from negative to positive in different localities, depending on whether species with lower- or higher-than-average biomass dominate communities, while the complementarity effect is positive overall, supporting the hypothesis that plant diversity influences primary production in European grasslands through niche differentiation or facilitation.
Declining biodiversity can alter the performance of ecosystems
COMMUNITIES of species and their associated biological, chemical and physical processes, collectively known as ecosystems, drive the Earth's biogeochemical processes1,2. Currently most ecosystems are
Ecosystem consequences of species richness and composition in pond food webs
It is found that productivity is either idiosyncratic or increases with respect to species richness, and that richness influences trophic structure, and the composition of species within richness levels can have equally or more marked effects on ecosystems than average effects of richness per se.
Environmental warming alters food-web structure and ecosystem function
It is shown using microcosm experiments that extinction risk in warming environments depends on trophic position but remains unaffected by biodiversity, which suggests that high biodiversity buffers against the effects of environmental variation because tolerant species are more likely to be found.
Plant diversity and ecosystem productivity: theoretical considerations.
Three simple models of interspecific competitive interactions in communities containing various numbers of randomly chosen species predict that, on average, productivity increases asymptotically with the original biodiversity of a community and show that both species identity and biodiversity simultaneously influence ecosystem functioning.
The Role of Biodiversity in the Functioning of Freshwater and Marine Benthic Ecosystems
Results from these small-scale, low-diversity manipulative studies indicate that the effects of changes in biodiversity are highly variable over space and time and frequently depend on specific biological traits or functional roles of individual species.
Biotic Control over the Functioning of Ecosystems
Changes in the abundance of species — especially those that influence water and nutrient dynamics, trophic interactions, or disturbance regime — affect the structure and functioning of ecosystems.