Effects of bicarbonate alkalinity and calcium on the acute toxicity of copper to juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

Abstract

Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the relative importance of calcium hardness and bicarbonate alkalinity to the acute response of juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) exposed to a toxic concentration of copper sulfate. A preliminary bioassay revealed 28 mg·l copper sulfate caused 50% mortality within 48 h (48-h LC50) in juvenile channel… (More)

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