The interaction of androgens and prolactin, the major factors regulating the male accessory sex organs, on the specific activity of seminal vesicular enzymes of the pyruvate/malate cycle were studied in castrated mature monkeys. Castration decreased the activity of these enzymes, including NADP+ isocitrate dehydrogenase, ATP citrate lyase, malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme and fatty acid synthase. Testosterone propionate (TP)/dihydrotestosterone given as replacement to castrates increased the activity of all these enzymes, except for malate dehydrogenase. Prolactin restored normal activity of ATP citrate lyase, malic enzyme and fatty acid synthase but not of isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase (MDH). Prolactin had a specific control over MDH. Moreover, when prolactin was combined with androgens a further stimulatory influence was observed on fatty acid synthase activity. In order to prove the direct influence of prolactin on enzymes of the pyruvate/malate cycle, bromocriptine was administered and this inhibited all of the enzymes. Thus prolactin was found to have a direct, as well as a synergistic, action with androgens on enzymes of the pyruvate/malate cycle in the seminal vesicles of monkeys.