OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of occupational exposure to aluminum on neurobahavioral function and metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitter. METHODS Thirty-three workers exposed to aluminum and 40 controls were studied. Air aluminum concentrations in workplace environment were detected with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanilylmandellic acid (VMA) in urine and aluminum in serum and urine were detected with high perfolmance liquid chromatography. Neurobehavioral function was tested with Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery recommended by WHO. RESULTS Geometric time-weighted average of aluminum in workplace environment was 0.95 mg/m3, ranging from 0.31 to 4.12 mg/m3, and urine aluminum levels in workers exposed to aluminum averaged 12.25 micrograms/L, significantly higher than that in controls (5.78 micrograms/L). There was no significant difference in serum aluminum between the exposed and controls. Both urine VMA and HVA levels were higher in the workers exposed to aluminum, and urine VMA level in the exposed was significantly higher than that in controls. There was significant difference in neurobehavioral test, including Santa Ana, digit symbol and Benton tests between the exposed and control workers. CONCLUSION It suggests that occupational exposure to low level of aluminum can affect the neurobehavioral function and metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitter.