Effects of a Bacteria-Based Probiotic on Ruminal pH, Volatile Fatty Acids and Bacterial Flora of Holstein Calves


Twelve ruminally cannulated Holstein calves (age, 12 ± 3 weeks) were used to identify the effect of a probiotic comprised of Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium and Clostridium butyricum on ruminal components. The calves were adapted to a diet containing a 50% high-concentrate (standard diet) for 1 week, and then, the probiotic was given once… (More)


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