Effects of War and Civil Strife on Wildlife and Wildlife Habitats

@article{Dudley2002EffectsOW,
  title={Effects of War and Civil Strife on Wildlife and Wildlife Habitats},
  author={Joseph P. Dudley and Joshua Ross Ginsberg and Andrew J. Plumptre and John A. Hart and Liliana Campos},
  journal={Conservation Biology},
  year={2002},
  volume={16}
}
Abstract: Historically, the no‐man's land created by human warfare often protected wildlife and habitats by limiting human incursions and human population densities within disputed territories. Relatively few examples of this phenomenon have been identified in conjunction with recent and ongoing wars in developing countries, however. Modern wars and civil strife are typically associated with detrimental effects on wildlife and wildlife habitats. Most cited instances of contemporary war‐zone… 
War and wildlife: linking armed conflict to conservation
Armed conflict throughout the world's biodiversity hotspots poses a critical threat to conservation efforts. To date, research and policy have focused more on the ultimate outcomes of conflict for
Wildlife decline in Cambodia, 1953–2005: exploring the legacy of armed conflict
Armed conflict is a social phenomenon often detrimental to wildlife and wildlife habitat, but the legacy of armed conflict for wildlife in post‐conflict settings remains unexplored. We explore the
Collateral Values: The Natural Capital Created by Landscapes of War
Warfare and related military activities have intensive, long-term, negative impacts on the environment. But sites of past human conflict also present potential opportunities for conservation and
Warfare-induced mammal population declines in Southwestern Africa are mediated by species life history, habitat type and hunter preferences
TLDR
This work used local ecological knowledge to assess the main consequences of a prolonged civil war in Southwestern Africa on forest and savannah mammals and presents a general flow diagram of how civil wars in low-governance countries can have both positive and negative impacts on native wildlife populations at different scales of space and time.
The impact of civil war on forest wildlife in West Africa: mammals in Gola Forest, Sierra Leone
Abstract Human conflicts may sometimes benefit wildlife by depopulating wilderness areas but there is evidence from Africa that the impacts tend to be negative. The forested states of West Africa
Warfare and wildlife declines in Africa’s protected areas
TLDR
It is shown that conflict frequency predicts the occurrence and severity of population declines among wild large herbivores in African protected areas from 1946 to 2010, and that sustained conservation activity in conflict zones—and rapid interventions following ceasefires—may help to save many at-risk populations and species.
The Maoist people's war and conservation in Nepal
TLDR
In times of civil strife, robust conservation may most likely be achieved by nongovernmental organizations that are politically neutral and financially independent, as exemplified by Nepal's ongoing Maoist insurgency.
Warfare in Biodiversity Hotspots
TLDR
With biodiversity hotspots concentrated in politically volatile regions, the conservation community must maintain continuous involvement during periods of war, and biodiversity conservation should be incorporated into military, reconstruction, and humanitarian programs in the world's conflict zones.
War zone refugia? Establishing a baseline for protected waterbirds in a wildlife refuge flanked by agriculture and militarization
TLDR
The seasonal status of waterbirds of Gharana Wetland Conservation Reserve is reported in order to help establish a baseline for comparing conservation of wildlife within contested areas to that of fauna in more secure refuges, and offers a reminder that the welfare of wildlife in protected areas should be monitored seasonally.
The effects of modern war and military activities on biodiversity and the environment
TLDR
Overall, the effects of direct conflict, nuclear weapons, military training, and military produced contaminants were found to have overwhelmingly negative effects on ecosystem structure and function.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 84 REFERENCES
The San Lucas mountain range in Colombia: how much conservation is owed to the violence?
  • L. Dávalos
  • Environmental Science
    Biodiversity & Conservation
  • 2004
The imminence of forest conversion in the northern Andean region requires a careful evaluation of the social, political and economic context in which environmental efforts take place in order to
The Environmental Consequences of War: War and biodiversity: an assessment of impacts
  • J. Mcneely
  • Environmental Science, Political Science
  • 2000
Introduction The “peace dividend” expected by many to result from the end of the Cold War has not paid off in terms of reduced violent conflict. Indeed, the recent nuclear weapons tests by India and
Conservation in a Region of Political Instability: Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda
Abstract: Bwindi Impenetrable is the most important forest in Uganda for conservation of biodiversity. It contains over half the world's mountain gorillas. It is surrounded by densely populated
The conservation status of Uganda's game and forest reserves in 1982 and 1983
ummary Aerial counts were made of huts, livestock and wildlife in and around eight game reserves in the west of Uganda in 1982 and five protected areas (three game reserves and two controlled
Explosive remnants of war in the human environment
The numerous wars always in progress somewhere or other on Earth continue to rely for their deadly, destructive, and environmentally damaging effects on explosives, fire, and other conventional
On the impacts of the 1991 Gulf war on the environment of the region: general observations
Effects of Human Activity on Global Extinction Risk
Both natural and anthropogenic factors are important in determining a species’ risk of extinction. Little work has been done, however, to quantify the magnitude of current anthropogenic influences on
Elephant Losses in Uganda – and Some Gains
TLDR
The elephant situation is so desperate in both the Rwenzori and Kabalega Falls National Parks, except in one area, that there is no certainty of their survival in either even if the poaching can be controlled.
Environmental Change and Violent Conflict
Within the next 50 years, the human population is likely to exceed nine billion, and global economic output may quintuple. Largely as a result of these two trends, scarcities of renewable resources
Impacts of the Afghan–Soviet War on Afghanistan's Environment
In the 20th century, the intensity of environmental damage resulting from wars has been remarkably parallel to the technological ‘advancement’ in conventional, chemical, biological, and nuclear,
...
...