Effects of Ungulates on Structure and Species Composition in the Urewera Forests as Shown by Exclosures

@inproceedings{Allen1984EffectsOU,
  title={Effects of Ungulates on Structure and Species Composition in the Urewera Forests as Shown by Exclosures},
  author={Robert B. Allen and I. J. PAYTON and Jackson Knowlton},
  year={1984}
}
Seventeen exclosures were built by the New Zealand Forest Service within Urewera forests over the period 1961-68 to exclude ungulates. Forest structure and species composition inside and outside these exclosures were compared in 1980-81. Some relatively shade tolerant species such as the fern Asplenium bulbiferum, the liane Ripogonum scandens, the sub-canopy shrubs Geniostoma ligustrifolium and Coprosma australis and the canopy species Beilschmiedia tawa were less abundant in certain tiers… CONTINUE READING