Effects of Transgenic Crops on the Environment

  title={Effects of Transgenic Crops on the Environment},
  author={Peter B. Woodbury and Antonio DiTommaso and Janice E. Thies and Matthew R. Ryan and John E. Losey},
Globally, the use of transgenic crops has increased rapidly during recent decades; they are now grown for food in 31 countries and for feed in 19 counties (Aldemita et al. 2015). The most commonly incorporated trait is herbicide tolerance (HT; e.g. crop tolerance to glyphosate and glufosinate), followed by insect resistance (IR; e.g. crops containing genes that produce insecticidal proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)) (Aldemita et al. 2015). Crops with stacked… 
A 2-year field trial reveals no significant effects of GM high-methionine soybean on the rhizosphere bacterial communities
It is indicated that transgenic high-methionine soybean ZD91 had no significantly effects on rhizosphere bacterial communities and the plant growth stage and year appeared to have a stronger effect on bacterial communities.
Transgenic Rice Plants Expressing Artificial miRNA Targeting the Rice Stripe Virus MP Gene Are Highly Resistant to the Virus
A dimeric artificial microRNA precursor expression vector is constructed that targets the viral MP gene based on the structure of the rice osa-MIR528 precursor and obtained marker-free transgenic rice plants constitutively expressing amiR MP by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation.
What Are the Grand Challenges for Plant Conservation in the 21st Century?
1 Plant Conservation Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, 2 Kirstenbosch Research Center, South African National Biodiversity Institute,
Next generation biological control – an introduction
Transgenic Plant Technology: An Insight into Insect Resistance


An ecological assessment of transgenic crops
The weight of the evidence suggests that there is little risk to non-target soil organisms, but reduced numbers of non- target beneficial insects have been reported with the use of insecticidal crops in some systems, and the need for in-country risk assessment and post-release monitoring is discussed.
Genetically Engineered Crops in the United States
The report finds that, although the pace of research and development (measured by the number of USDA-approved field tests) peaked in 2002, other measures show that biotech firms continue to develop new GE seed varieties at a rapid pace.
Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the U.S. -- the first sixteen years
The spread of glyphosate-resistant weeds in herbicide-resistant weed management systems has brought about substantial increases in the number and volume of herbicides applied, and new genetically engineered forms of corn and soybeans tolerant of 2,4-D are approved, could drive herbicide usage upward by another approximate 50%.
Agricultural Weeds in Glyphosate-Resistant Cropping Systems in the United States
The finding that fields with continuous GR crops demonstrated greater weed diversity is contrary to arguments opposing the use of GE crops and justifies further research to clarify the complexities of crops grown with herbicide-resistance traits, or more broadly, GE crops, to provide a more complete characterization of their culture and local adaptation.
Successes and failures of transgenic bt crops: Global patterns of field-evolved resistance
This work reviews data monitoring resistance to seven Bt proteins in 13 major pest species targeting Bt maize and Bt cotton on six continents and encourages collaboration between growers and scientists in industry, academia and government to implement large refuges of non-Bt host plants to maximize the benefi ts of Bt crops.
Widespread adoption of Bt cotton and insecticide decrease promotes biocontrol services
This work shows a marked increase in abundance of three types of generalist arthropod predators and a decreased abundance of aphid pests associated with widespread adoption of Bt cotton and reduced insecticide sprays in this crop.
Transgenic Bt plants decompose less in soil than non-Bt plants
Bt plants are plants that have been genetically modified to express the insecticidal proteins (e.g. Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry3A) from subspecies of the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), to kill
The benefits of herbicide-resistant crops.
New multiple-herbicide-resistant crops with resistance to glyphosate and other herbicides will expand the utility of existing herbicide technologies and will be an important component of future weed management systems that help to sustain the current benefits of high-efficiency and high-production agriculture.