Novel Nanotechnology of TiO2 Improves Physical-Chemical and Biological Properties of Glass Ionomer Cement
BACKGROUND/AIM Incorporation of nanoparticles (NPs) into the glass ionomer cements (GICs) is known to improve their mechanical and antibacterial properties. The present study aimed to investigate the possible cytotoxicity and pro-inflammation effect of three different powdered GICs (base, core build and restorative) prepared with and without titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. MATERIALS AND METHODS Each GIC was blended with TiO2 nanopowder, anatase phase, particle size <25 nm at 3% and 5% (w/w), and the GIC blocks of cements were prepared in a metal mold. The GICs/TiO2 nanoparticles cements were smashed up with a mortar and pestle to a fine powder, and then subjected to the sterilization by autoclaving. Human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (HCS-2, HSC-3, HSC-4, Ca9-22) and human normal oral cells [gingival fibroblast (HGF), pulp (HPC) and periodontal ligament fibroblast (HPLF)] were incubated with different concentrations of GICs in the presence or absence of TiO2 nanoparticles, and the viable cell number was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. Prostaglandin E2 was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Changes in fine cell structure were assessed by transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS Cancer cells exhibited moderate cytotoxicity after 48 h of incubation, regardless of the type of GIC and the presence or absence of TiO2 NPs. GICs induced much lower cytotoxicity against normal cells, but induced prostaglandin E2 production, in a synergistic wanner with interleukin-1β. CONCLUSION The present study shows acceptable to moderate biocompatibility of GICs impregnated with TiO2 nanoparticles, as well as its pro-inflammatory effects at higher concentrations.