Effects of Spaceflight on Astronaut Brain Structure as Indicated on MRI

@article{Roberts2017EffectsOS,
  title={Effects of Spaceflight on Astronaut Brain Structure as Indicated on MRI},
  author={Donna R. Roberts and Moritz H. Albrecht and H R Collins and Davud Asemani and Arindam R. Chatterjee and Maria Vittoria Spampinato and Xun Zhu and Marc I. Chimowitz and M U Antonucci},
  journal={The New England Journal of Medicine},
  year={2017},
  volume={377},
  pages={1746–1753}
}
Background There is limited information regarding the effects of spaceflight on the anatomical configuration of the brain and on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. Methods We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare images of 18 astronauts’ brains before and after missions of long duration, involving stays on the International Space Station, and of 16 astronauts’ brains before and after missions of short duration, involving participation in the Space Shuttle Program. Images were… Expand
Spaceflight-Associated Brain White Matter Microstructural Changes and Intracranial Fluid Redistribution
TLDR
White matter changes were of a greater magnitude than those typically seen during the same period with healthy aging and likely reflects headward fluid shifts occurring in microgravity as well as an upward shift of the brain within the skull. Expand
Brain ventricular volume changes induced by long-duration spaceflight
TLDR
A significant increase in lateral and third ventricles at postflight and a trend to normalization at follow-up, but still significantly increased ventricular volumes are found, pointing to a reduced CSF resorption in microgravity as the underlying cause. Expand
Prolonged Microgravity Affects Human Brain Structure and Function
TLDR
Widespread brain structural changes are seen following extended spaceflight missions and are associated with changes in cognitive and motor test scores and with the development of spaceflight-associated neuro-optic syndrome. Expand
The Impact of 6 and 12 Months in Space on Human Brain Structure and Intracranial Fluid Shifts
TLDR
It is suggested that spaceflight-induced ventricular changes may endure for long periods after flight, and the need for closer study of fluid shifts is demonstrated. Expand
Association of Structural Changes in the Brain and Retina After Long-Duration Spaceflight.
TLDR
A positive, although not definitive, association between spaceflight-induced changes in total retinal thickness and lateral ventricle volume and the development of optic disc edema appears to be uncoupled with changes occurring in the intracranial compartment is revealed. Expand
Brain Physiological Response and Adaptation During Spaceflight.
TLDR
This review focuses on brain physiology in the spaceflight environment on how spaceflight may affect ICP and related indicators of cranial compliance, potential factors related to the development of SANS, and findings from spaceflight as well as ground-based spaceflight analog research studies. Expand
A review of alterations to the brain during spaceflight and the potential relevance to crew in long-duration space exploration
TLDR
Future work is needed to understand how spaceflight-associated changes to the brain affect crew health and performance, with the goal of developing comprehensive monitoring and countermeasure strategies for future long-duration space exploration. Expand
Macro- and microstructural changes in cosmonauts’ brains after long-duration spaceflight
TLDR
This study provides evidence of spaceflight-induced neuroplasticity to adapt motor strategies in space and evidence of fluid shift–induced mechanical changes in the brain. Expand
Effects of Spaceflight Stressors on Brain Volume, Microstructure, and Intracranial Fluid Distribution
TLDR
The results enhance the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of spaceflight-induced brain changes, which is critical for promoting astronaut health and performance, and found asymmetric lateral ventricle enlargement in the SANS group. Expand
Brains in space: the importance of understanding the impact of long-duration spaceflight on spatial cognition and its neural circuitry
TLDR
This paper argues that spatial cognition, i.e., the ability to encode representations about self-to-object relations and integrate this information into a spatial map of the environment, and their neural bases will be highly vulnerable during long-duration spaceflight, and identifies recommendations and future steps to mitigate these risks. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 19 REFERENCES
Brain structural plasticity with spaceflight
TLDR
Examination of retrospective longitudinal T2-weighted MRI scans and balance data from 27 astronauts to determine spaceflight effects on brain structure, and whether any pre to postflight brain changes are associated with balance changes found extensive volumetric gray matter decreases. Expand
Neuro-Ophthalmology of Space Flight
TLDR
The optic nerve and ocular changes that are seen in astronauts may represent parts of a spectrum of ocular and cerebral responses to extended microgravity exposure, as well as potential countermeasures and discussion of possible terrestrial implications. Expand
Changes in the central nervous system during long-duration space flight: implications for neuro-imaging.
  • A. Newberg, A. Alavi
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Advances in space research : the official journal of the Committee on Space Research
  • 1998
TLDR
Current progress in the ability to study brain morphology, cerebral metabolism, and neurochemistry in vivo in the human brain would provide ample opportunity to investigate many of the changes that occur in the CNS as a result of space flight. Expand
Structural Brain Changes following Long-Term 6° Head-Down Tilt Bed Rest as an Analog for Spaceflight
TLDR
The observation that ventricular change is correlated to posterior brain rotation suggests an alteration in CSF homeostasis, and widespread morphologic changes with brain tissue redistribution in response to gravity changes are observed. Expand
Optic Disc Edema in an Astronaut After Repeat Long-Duration Space Flight
  • T. Mader, C. Gibson, +11 authors D. Pettit
  • Medicine
  • Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
  • 2013
TLDR
This is the first astronaut with previously documented postflight ophthalmic abnormalities who developed new pathological changes after a repeat long-duration mission, and microgravity-induced anatomical changes that occurred during the first mission may have set the stage for recurrent or additional changes when the astronaut was subjected to physiological stress of repeat space flight. Expand
Optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal folds, and hyperopic shifts observed in astronauts after long-duration space flight.
TLDR
It is hypothesized that the optic nerve and ocular changes discovered in 7 astronauts after long-duration space flight may result from cephalad fluid shifts brought about by prolonged microgravity exposure. Expand
Disrupted resting-state functional architecture of the brain after 45-day simulated microgravity
TLDR
Evidence that simulated microgravity alters the resting-state functional architecture of the brains of males is provided and suggest that the processing of salience information, which is primarily subserved by the aINS–MCC functional network, is particularly influenced by spaceflight is suggested. Expand
Human brain changes across the life span: A review of 56 longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies
TLDR
Findings from 56 longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies on whole brain volume change in healthy individuals integrate and indicate that whole brainVolume changes throughout the life span. Expand
Notice of retraction: Role of Cerebrospinal Fluid in Spaceflight-induced Ocular Changes and Visual Impairment in Astronauts.
TLDR
The role of Cerebral Spinal Fluid in Space Flight Induced Ocular Changes and Visual Impairment in Astronauts and the implications for astronaut health are investigated. Expand
The impact of microgravity on bone metabolism in vitro and in vivo.
  • P. Loomer
  • Medicine
  • Critical reviews in oral biology and medicine : an official publication of the American Association of Oral Biologists
  • 2001
TLDR
It appears that the skeletal response is a physiologic adaptation to the space environment which, after long space flights or repeated shorter ones, could eventually lead to significant reductions in the ability of the skeletal tissues to withstand the forces of gravity and increased susceptibility to fracture. Expand
...
1
2
...