Effects of Schedule I drug laws on neuroscience research and treatment innovation

  title={Effects of Schedule I drug laws on neuroscience research and treatment innovation},
  author={David J. Nutt and Leslie A King and David E. Nichols},
  journal={Nature Reviews Neuroscience},
Many psychoactive drugs are used recreationally, particularly by young people. This use and its perceived dangers have led to many different classes of drugs being banned under national laws and international conventions. Indeed, the possession of cannabis, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA; also known as ecstasy) and psychedelics is stringently regulated. An important and unfortunate outcome of the controls placed on these and other psychoactive drugs is that they make research into… 

Psychedelic drugs—a new era in

  • D. Nutt
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Dialogues in clinical neuroscience
  • 2019
The renaissance of classical psychedelic drugs such as psilocybin and LSD plus 3,4-methylene dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA—ecstasy) in psychiatric research is covered, which is likely to see these medicines approved for clinical practice soon afterwards.

Can Neuroscience Improve Addiction Treatment and Policies?

How more informed understanding of neuroscience may help to improve the effectiveness and reduce the unintended side effects of contemporary drug policies is explored and some rational ways neuroscience may better inform and assist in policy decisions are suggested.

Psychiatry & the psychedelic drugs. Past, present & future

Abuse of New Psychoactive Substances: Threats and Solutions

There has been an explosive increase in the non-medical use of so-called ‘designer drugs’ or ‘new psychoactive substances’ (NPS), which are synthetic alternatives to illicit drugs of abuse (Baumann

Legal controls on cannabimimetics: an international dilemma?

  • L. King
  • Biology
    Drug testing and analysis
  • 2014
The growing interest in the clinical potential of tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) is inhibited, at least in the UK, by its unintended status as a Schedule 1 substance, and the generic definition of classical cannabinoids shows signs of weakness.

Psychedelic drug use in healthy individuals: A review of benefits, costs, and implications for drug policy

The potential of psychedelic drugs in the treatment of mental health problems is increasingly being recognized. However, relatively little thrust has been given to the suggestion that individuals

Keep off the grass? Cannabis, cognition and addiction

The current state of knowledge about vulnerability factors, the variations in types of cannabis, and the relationship between these and cognition and addiction are reviewed.

Does cannabidiol have a role in the treatment of schizophrenia?




MDMA (Ecstasy).

  • R. El-MallakhH. D. Abraham
  • Psychology
    Annals of clinical psychiatry : official journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
  • 2007
MDMA is an important drug of abuse that has a wide range of adverse consequences and there is a dearth of treatment strategies for both acute intoxication and consequences of longer term use.

Human hallucinogenic drug research in the United States: a present-day case history and review of the process.

This article reviews the application process, obstacles and their solutions, and the local and federal issues involved of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) to humans.

State of the art treatments for cannabis dependence.

Severe Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity in Primates After a Common Recreational Dose Regimen of MDMA ("Ecstasy")

Nonhuman primates exposed to several sequential doses of MDMA, a regimen modeled after one used by humans, developed severe brain dopaminergic neurotoxicity, in addition to less pronounced serotonergic neurot toxicity, which has implications for mechanisms of MDMA neurotoxicity.

Equasy — An overlooked addiction with implications for the current debate on drug harms

  • D. Nutt
  • Medicine
    Journal of psychopharmacology
  • 2009
In this study, this study assessed alcohol, tobacco and some other misused substances to provide anchor points that would allow non-experts and the general public to better understand the harms of drugs with which they might not have familiarity.

Cannabidiol inhibits THC-elicited paranoid symptoms and hippocampal-dependent memory impairment

The idea that high-THC/low-CBD cannabis products are associated with increased risks for mental health is supported, and pre-treatment with CBD inhibited THC-elicited psychosis and cognitive impairment is tested.

Using dopamine research to generate rational cannabinoid drug policy.

A review of neuroscience research suggests that synthetic CBs that act like Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by directly binding to and stimulating CB receptors, as well as novel drugs that indirectly stimulate these receptors by increasing levels of endogenous CB neurotransmitters have therapeutic value.

Popular intoxicants: what lessons can be learned from the last 40 years of alcohol and cannabis regulation?

It is argued that increased policing of cannabis use under the current drug classification system will lead to increased criminalization of young people, but is unlikely to significantly reduce the rates of schizophrenia and psychosis.