Effects of Resistance Training Frequency on Measures of Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

  title={Effects of Resistance Training Frequency on Measures of Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis},
  author={Brad Jon Schoenfeld and Daniel I. Ogborn and James W. Krieger},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
BackgroundA number of resistance training (RT) program variables can be manipulated to maximize muscular hypertrophy. One variable of primary interest in this regard is RT frequency. Frequency can refer to the number of resistance training sessions performed in a given period of time, as well as to the number of times a specific muscle group is trained over a given period of time.ObjectiveWe conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effects of resistance training… 

How many times per week should a muscle be trained to maximize muscle hypertrophy? A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies examining the effects of resistance training frequency

There is strong evidence that resistance training frequency does not significantly or meaningfully impact muscle hypertrophy when volume is equated, and individuals can choose a weekly frequency per muscle groups based on personal preference.

The Effect of Resistance Training in Women on Dynamic Strength and Muscular Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis

RT elicits large improvements in muscular strength and hypertrophy in healthy adult females and training volume and frequency appear to be important variables that influence muscular strength.

A meta-regression of the effects of resistance training frequency on muscular strength and hypertrophy in adults over 60 years of age

Considering that muscle hypertrophy was not affected, while maximum strength was only slightly improved with additional training days, it seems unlikely that more than two weekly resistance training sessions would provide any further benefits for older adults.

Effects of linear and daily undulating periodized resistance training programs on measures of muscle hypertrophy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The meta-analysis comparing LP and DUP indicated that the effects of the two periodization models on muscle hypertrophy are likely to be similar, however, more research is needed in this area, particularly among trained individuals and clinical populations.

The Effectiveness of Frequency-Based Resistance Training Protocols on Muscular Performance and Hypertrophy in Trained Males: A Critically Appraised Topic.

There is moderate-to-strong evidence to suggest that lower-frequency RT, when volume is equated, will produce equal to greater improvements on muscular strength and hypertrophy in comparison to higher- frequency RT.

Frequency: The Overlooked Resistance Training Variable for Inducing Muscle Hypertrophy?

It is hypothesized that increasing the training frequency, as opposed to the training load or sets performed, may be a more appropriate strategy for trained individuals to progress a resistance exercise program aimed at increasing muscle size.

Resistance Training Variables for Optimization of Muscle Hypertrophy: An Umbrella Review

It is can be state that at least 10 sets per week per muscle group is optimal, that eccentric contractions seem important, very slow repetitions should be avoided, and that blood flow restriction might be beneficial for some individuals.

Effect of different training frequencies on maximal strength performance and muscle hypertrophy in trained individuals—a within-subject design

Several studies comparing resistance training (RT) frequencies may have been affected by the large between-subject variability. This study aimed to compare the changes in lower limbs maximal dynamic

A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Resistance Training on Whole-Body Muscle Growth in Healthy Adult Males

In conclusion, RT has a significant effect on the improvement of hypertrophy (~1.5 kg) and the excessive sets per workout affects negatively the muscle mass gain.



The Influence of Frequency, Intensity, Volume and Mode of Strength Training on Whole Muscle Cross-Sectional Area in Humans

The results demonstrate that given sufficient frequency, intensity and volume of work, all three types of muscle actions can induce significant hypertrophy at an impressive rate and that, at present, there is insufficient evidence for the superiority of any mode and/or type of muscle action over other modes and types of training.

Influence of Resistance Training Frequency on Muscular Adaptations in Well-Trained Men

The findings suggest a potentially superior hypertrophic benefit to higher weekly resistance training frequencies, as shown in results showed significantly greater increases in forearm flexor MT for TOTAL compared with SPLIT.

Effects of different resistance training frequencies on flexibility in older women

Twelve weeks of RT improves the flexibility of different joint movements in older women, and the higher frequency induces greater increases for frontal hip flexion.

Effects of Low- vs. High-Load Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Well-Trained Men

It is indicated that both HL and LL training to failure can elicit significant increases in muscle hypertrophy among well-trained young men; however, HL training is superior for maximizing strength adaptations.

American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults.

In order to stimulate further adaptation toward a specific training goal(s), progression in the type of resistance training protocol used is necessary and emphasis should be placed on multiple-joint exercises, especially those involving the total body.

The mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and their application to resistance training.

  • B. Schoenfeld
  • Education
    Journal of strength and conditioning research
  • 2010
The purpose of this paper is to extensively review the literature as to the mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and their application to exercise training and to draw conclusions from the research as toThe optimal protocol for maximizing muscle growth.

American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults.

  • Position Stand
  • Education
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise
  • 2009
Progression in power training entails two general loading strategies: strength training and use of light loads performed at a fast contraction velocity with 3-5 min of rest between sets for multiple sets per exercise (three to five sets).

Short-Term Effects of Resistance Training Frequency on Body Composition and Strength in Middle-Aged Women

In these untrained, middle-aged women, initial short-term gains inLean mass and strength were not influenced by training frequency when the number of training sets per week was equated, and correlation analysis revealed that weekly training volume load was strongly and positively related to gains in lean mass.

Single vs. Multiple Sets of Resistance Exercise for Muscle Hypertrophy: A Meta-Analysis

  • J. Krieger
  • Medicine
    Journal of strength and conditioning research
  • 2010
In conclusion, multiple sets are associated with 40% greater hypertrophy-related ESs than 1 set, in both trained and untrained subjects.

Variability in muscle size and strength gain after unilateral resistance training.

Men and women exhibit wide ranges of response to resistance training, with some subjects showing little to no gain, and others showing profound changes, increasing size by over 10 cm and doubling their strength.