Effects of Opioid Tolerance and Withdrawal on the Immune System

@article{Eisenstein2006EffectsOO,
  title={Effects of Opioid Tolerance and Withdrawal on the Immune System},
  author={Toby K. Eisenstein and Rahil T. Rahim and Pu Feng and Nita K. Thingalaya and Joseph J. Meissler},
  journal={Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology},
  year={2006},
  volume={1},
  pages={237-249}
}
Review of the robust literature using acute drug injection paradigms points clearly to the conclusion that morphine is immunosuppressive. In contrast, studies of the effect of subacute or chronic administration of morphine on immune function is limited, with variable results. In some cases tolerance to the immunosuppressive effects of the drug is clearly demonstrated, but in other cases, selected immune parameters do not demonstrate tolerance. Discrepancies in findings may result from… CONTINUE READING

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