The effect of acute and subchronic administration of an alcoholic extract of the roots of Nardostachys jatamansi on norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and taurine were studied in male albino Wistar rats. The acute oral administration of the extract did not change the level of NE and DA but resulted in a significant increase in the level of 5-HT and 5-HIAA. A significant increase in the level of GABA and taurine was observed in the drug-treated groups when compared to the controls. A 15-day treatment resulted in a significant increase in the levels of NE, DA, 5-HT, 5-HIAA, and GABA. These data indicate that the alcoholic extract of the roots of N. jatamansi causes an overall increase in the levels of central monoamines and inhibitory amino acids.