Effects of NMDA receptor antagonists on morphine tolerance: a c-Fos study in the lumbar spinal cord of the rat.

@article{LeGuen1999EffectsON,
  title={Effects of NMDA receptor antagonists on morphine tolerance: a c-Fos study in the lumbar spinal cord of the rat.},
  author={St{\'e}phanie Le Guen and Gw{\'e}na{\"e}lle Catheline and Jean Marie Besson},
  journal={European journal of pharmacology},
  year={1999},
  volume={373 1},
  pages={
          1-11
        }
}

Co-localization of mu opioid receptor and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in the trigeminal dorsal horn.

Results suggest that direct interactions between MOR and NMDA receptor ligands are likely mediated through shared dendritic targets in the dorsal horn, and evidence for modulation of afferents to MOR-containing neurons through presynaptic NMDA receptors is found.

Prevention and reversal of morphine tolerance by the analgesic neuroactive steroid alphadolone.

It is concluded that the alphadolone can prevent morphine tolerance and it also restores normal morphine antinociception in rats with established morphine tolerance.

Intrathecal landiolol inhibits nociception and spinal c-Fos expression in the mouse formalin test

The present study indicates that intrathecally administered landiolol produces significant antinociceptive effects in the formalin test, and suggests a potential role of ß1-adrenoreceptors in spinal nociception processing.

c-fos induction in rat superficial dorsal horn following cutaneous application of noxious chemical or mechanical stimuli

Results indicate either that individual laminae I-II neurons are activated by each of the irritant chemicals, or that neurons selectively responsive to a given irritant are comingled without any apparent laminar segregation.

Spinal NTS1 receptors regulate nociceptive signaling in a rat formalin tonic pain model

It is suggested that NTS1‐selective agonists may represent a new line of analgesic compounds and play a key role in the mediation of the analgesic effects of NT in persistent pain.

Regional Fos expression induced by morphine withdrawal in the 7-day-old rat.

The goal here was to determine if these regions become metabolically active during physical withdrawal from morphine in the infant rat as they do in the adult.

Are NMDA receptors involved in opiate-induced neural and behavioral plasticity?

NMDA receptor antagonists appear to inhibit the neural plasticity underlying some forms of opiate tolerance, sensitization and physical dependence, suggesting that NMDA receptors are involved in the development of these drug-induced changes in behavior.

The neurobiology of opiate tolerance, dependence and sensitization: Mechanisms of NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity

The evidence suggests that the mechanisms that underlie changes in the brain and behavior produced by long-term opiate use may be similar to other central nervous system adaptations.

References

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Modulation of morphine tolerance by the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist LY274614: assessment of opioid receptor changes.

Results demonstrate that the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist LY274614 can both attenuate and reverse the development of morphine tolerance.

Thermal hyperalgesia in association with the development of morphine tolerance in rats: roles of excitatory amino acid receptors and protein kinase C

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The data indicate that thermal hyperalgesia develops in association with the development of morphine tolerance and that the coactivation of central NMDA and non-NMDA receptors is crucial for both the development and expression of thermal hyperAlgesia in morphine-tolerant rats.
...