Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

@article{James2004EffectsO,
  title={
Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)},
  author={S. James and E. Little and R. D. Semlitsch},
  journal={Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology},
  year={2004},
  volume={46},
  pages={518-527}
}
The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4°C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 μg Cd/g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of… Expand
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