BACKGROUND/AIMS We assessed changes in hemodynamic and arterial stiffness parameters following reductions of dialysate calcium concentrations in patients undergoing hemodialysis. METHODS In this prospective study, 20 patients on maintenance hemodialysis (10 females, 10 males) with dialysate calcium concentrations of 1.75 mmol/L were enrolled. At the start of the study, the dialysate calcium level was lowered to 1.50 mmol/L. Serial changes in biochemical, hemodynamic, and arterial stiffness parameters, including pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), were assessed every 2 months for 6 months. We also examined changes in the calcification-inhibitory protein, serum fetuin-A. RESULTS During the 6-month study period, serum total calcium and ionized calcium decreased consistently (9.5 ± 1.0 to 9.0 ± 0.7, p = 0.002 vs. 1.3 ± 0.1 to 1.1 ± 0.1, p = 0.035). Although no apparent changes in blood pressure were observed, heart-femoral PWW (hf-PWV) and AIx showed significant improvement (p = 0.012, 0.043, respectively). Repeated-measures ANOVA indicated a significant effect of lowering dialysate calcium on hf-PWV (F = 4.58, p = 0.004) and AIx (F = 2.55, p = 0.049). Accompanying the change in serum calcium, serum fetuin-A levels significantly increased (95.8 ± 45.8 pmol/mL at baseline to 124.9 ± 82.2 pmol/mL at 6 months, p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS Lowering dialysate calcium concentration significantly improved arterial stiffness parameters, which may have been associated with upregulation of serum fetuin-A.