Effects of Low Concentrations of Nitrous Oxide on Rat Fetuses

  title={Effects of Low Concentrations of Nitrous Oxide on Rat Fetuses},
  author={E. Vieira and Cleaton-Jones and J. Austin and D. Moyes and R. Shawl},
  journal={Anesthesia \& Analgesia},
The long-term inhalation of air polluted with nitrous oxide has been implicated in spontaneous abortions and fetal abnormalities in operating room personnel. Studies with 1% and 0.5% N2O in air have confirmed the adverse effects of dilute concentrations of N2O in pregnant rats. The present study was designed to determine the threshold concentration of nitrous oxide necessary to produce adverse responses in pregnant rats. Wistar albino rats were mated in an environmental chamber and conception… Expand
Reproduction and fetal development in rats exposed to nitrous oxide.
The results of this and other studies which have examined the reproductive and teratogenic effects of nitrous oxide do not contraindicate its use in operating rooms nor, when necessary, as an anesthetic for pregnant surgical patients. Expand
Reproduction and fetal development in mice chronically exposed to nitrous oxide.
When nitrous oxide is compared with other inhalation anesthetics the authors have studied employing a similar protocol, the order of reproductive toxicity is found to be: halothane greater than enfluranegreater than methoxyfluran greater than Nitrous oxide greater thanNitrous oxide. Expand
Effects of intermittent 0.5% nitrous oxide/air (v/v) on the fertility of male rats and the post‐natal growth of their offspring
Results show a reversible reduction in male Wistar rat fertility, after exposure to 0.5% nitrous oxide in air (v/v), as well as a postnatal growth depression. Expand
The Effects of Nitrous Oxide After Exposure During Middle and Late Gestation
In conclusion, unlike 24 hr exposures, multiple 8 hr exposures to nitrous oxide during the middle to late stages of gestation did not produce effects detectable with standard teratological measures. Expand
Behavioral Toxicity of Nitrous Oxide in Rats Following Prenatal Exposure
In utero exposure to N20 permanently altered the spontaneous motor output of the CNS and was most prominent in 5 month old animals, and females were affected more than males. Expand
Teratogenicity of nitrous oxide.
Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is the only inhalation anaesthetic that has definitely been shown to be teratogenic in experimental animals, and epidemiological studies suggest that N 2 O does not cause a Teratogenic effect in clinical circumstances. Expand
Effect of nitrous oxide on embryonic macromolecular synthesis and purine levels.
The lower DNA and RNA contents in N2O-treated embryos are apparently not the result of decreased levels of adenine or guanine, and might be caused by decreased folate levels. Expand
Effect of prenatal N2O exposure on startle reflex reactivity.
Prenatal exposure to N2O resulted in hyporeactivity of the startle reflex in response to acoustic or tactile stimuli, and the risk of behavioral or functional abnormalities for humans following in utero N 2O exposure is unknown and cannot be directly extrapolated from the present study. Expand
Scientific Basis for Swedish Occupational Standards XXII
In studies in which pregnant pigs and rats were fed on cassava containing up to 1250 mg KCN/kg, the only observed toxic effects on reproduction were minor metabolic differences and lower relative organ weights in fetuses at doses affecting the mothers. Expand
Health hazards and nitrous oxide: a time for reappraisal.
This review outlines current information on the health risks of N2O inhalation to provide a basis from which safe and reasonably attainable exposure limits can be proposed. Expand


Effects of Low Concentrations of Nitrous Oxide on Rat Pregnancy
Differences in the fetal death rates between groups exposed from 6 AM to 2 PM and from 2 PM to 10 PM suggest a diurnal variation in the embryotoxic effect of nitrous oxide in the rat. Expand
Intermittent exposure of gravid rats to 1% nitrous oxide and the effect on the postnatal growth of their offspring.
Litter sizes in animals exposed for the first and second weeks of gestation were significantly smaller than the controls and a two-way nested statistical analysis of the data revealed that over an 8-week period the experimental rats were significantly larger than the control rats of the same age. Expand
Teratogenic Activity of Nitrous Oxide
Exposure of pregnant rats to an atmosphere containing nitrous oxide resulted in foetuses with abnormalities of vertebrae and ribs, and in death and resorption of foetuses. The lethal effects seemedExpand
Chronic exposure to anesthetic gases in the operating room.
A significant reduction in atmospheric contamination of the operating room was obtained by use of appropriate scavenging equipment and the scavenging system employed to remove overflow anesthetic gases. Expand
Epidemiological studies of the occupational hazards of anaesthesia‐a review *
The epidemiological literature on the ocupational hazards of anaesthesia which includes some sort of control data has been studied. It provides reasonably convincing evidence of a moderate increaseExpand
Effect of 0.5% nitrous oxide on gravid rats
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