Effects of Low‐Intensity Walk Training With Restricted Leg Blood Flow on Muscle Strength and Aerobic Capacity in Older Adults

  title={Effects of Low‐Intensity Walk Training With Restricted Leg Blood Flow on Muscle Strength and Aerobic Capacity in Older Adults},
  author={Takashi Abe and Mikako Sakamaki and Satoshi Fujita and Hayao Ozaki and Masato Sugaya and Yoshiaki Sato and Toshiaki Nakajima},
  journal={Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy},
PurposeSlow-walk training combined with restricted leg muscular blood flow (KAATSU) produces muscle hypertrophy and strength gains in young men, which may lead to increased aerobic capacity and functional fitness. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of walk training combined with KAATSU on muscle size, strength, and functional ability, as well as aerobic capacity, in older participants. MethodsA total of 19 active men and women, aged 60 to 78 years, were randomized into… 
Increases in thigh muscle volume and strength by walk training with leg blood flow reduction in older participants.
  • H. Ozaki, M. Sakamaki, T. Abe
  • Medicine
    The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences
  • 2011
In conclusion, BFR walk training improves both muscle volume and strength in older women.
Effects of 10 Weeks Walk Training With Leg Blood Flow Reduction on Carotid Arterial Compliance and Muscle Size in the Elderly Adults
Walk training with blood flow reduction can improve thigh muscle size/strength as well as carotid arterial compliance, unlike high-intensity training, in the elderly.
Effects of Low-Intensity Cycle Training with Restricted Leg Blood Flow on Thigh Muscle Volume and VO2MAX in Young Men.
The results suggest that low-intensity, short-duration cycling exercise combined with BFR improves both muscle hypertrophy and aerobic capacity concurrently in young men.
Legs and trunk muscle hypertrophy following walk training with restricted leg muscle blood flow.
The results suggest that the combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction with slow walk training elicits hypertrophy only in the distal blood flow restricted leg muscles, and exercise intensity may be too low during BFR walk training to increase muscle mass in the non-blood flow restricted muscles.
Effect of Combined Increased Physical Activity and Walking with Blood Flow Restriction on Leg Muscle Thickness in Older Adults
Walking and stair-climbing training can increase MT of the PT and PL, and improve walking performance in older adults, whereas a BFR-walk once or twice a wk may not produce additional training effects.
Effect of Long-Term Training Program Combining Increased Physical Activity and Walking with Blood Flow Restriction on Locomotive Syndrome in the Elderly
Long-term walking and stair-climbing training programs did not improve the outcomes of locomotive syndrome risk test in physically active elderly subjects.
Chronic effectiveness of walking with blood flow restriction on the activation and strength in osteoporotic older women: A randomized clinical trial
Low–intensity walk combined with BFR does not provide relevant chronic effects on strength gain or even limit muscle strength gain, however, due to greater activation of knee extensors over 24 weeks, it is possible to benefit from the use of similar strategies to obtain neuromuscular gains in the long-term for elderly women with osteopenia and osteoporosis.
Effects of Blood Flow Restriction and Exercise Intensity on Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Muscle Strength Adaptations in Physically Active Collegiate Women
In summary, participants with complete occlusion experienced the greatest improvements in muscle strength, aerobic, and anaerobic parameters possibly due to increased oxygen deficiency and higher metabolic stress.
Short‐term low‐intensity blood flow restricted interval training improves both aerobic fitness and muscle strength
The advantage of short‐term low‐intensity interval BFR training is demonstrated as the single mode of training able to simultaneously improve aerobic fitness and muscular strength.


Muscle size and strength are increased following walk training with restricted venous blood flow from the leg muscle, Kaatsu-walk training.
The results suggest that the combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction with slow-walk training induces muscle hypertrophy and strength gain, despite the minimal level of exercise intensity.
Strength conditioning in older men: skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improved function.
Strength gains in older men were associated with significant muscle hypertrophy and an increase in myofibrillar protein turnover and the torque-velocity relationship showed an upward displacement of the curve at the end of training, mainly in the slow-vel velocity high-torque region.
High-intensity strength training in nonagenarians. Effects on skeletal muscle.
It is concluded that high-resistance weight training leads to significant gains in muscle strength, size, and functional mobility among frail residents of nursing homes up to 96 years of age.
Tai Chi versus brisk walking in elderly women.
A short style of TCC was found to be an effective way to improve many fitness measures in elderly women over a 3-month period.
Strength training and determinants of VO2max in older men.
The data suggest that the small increase in leg cycle VO2max in older men may be due to adaptations in oxidative capacity and increased mass of the strength-trained muscles.
Strength and power changes of the human plantar flexors and knee extensors in response to resistance training in old age.
Hypertrophy cannot alone justify the increase in torque, and other factors, such as an increase in individual fibre-specific tension (in the case of KE), a decrease in antagonist muscles' coactivation, an improved co-ordination and an increased neural drive of the other heads of quadriceps may have contributed to the increments in strength.
Increased muscle volume and strength following six days of low-intensity resistance training with restricted muscle blood flow
Changes in muscle mass and strength following 6-day (12 sessions) of low-intensity resistance training requires BFR to produce responses comparable to the effect of several weeks of high- intensity resistance training.
Strength training effects on aerobic power and short-term endurance.
Evidence is provided that HRT is capable of dramatically increasing short-term endurance, when the muscles involved in the training are used almost exclusively during the testing without an accompanying increase in Vo2max.
Effects of high-intensity strength training on cardiovascular function.
It is indicated that high-intensity, variable-resistance, Nautilus strength training produces no adaptative improvement in cardiovascular function, and the physiological responses measured during a training session provide evidence that this lack of cardiovascular adaptation may be due to the low percentage of VO2max elicited by this form of exercise.
Effects of resistance exercise combined with vascular occlusion on muscle function in athletes
It is indicated that low-intensity resistance exercise causes increases in muscle size, strength and endurance, when combined with vascular occlusion in highly trained athletes.