Effects of L-cysteine and N-acetyl-L-cysteine on 4-hydroxy-2, 5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, and 5-methylfurfural formation and browning in buffer solutions containing either rhamnose or glucose and arginine.

@article{HalevaToledo1999EffectsOL,
  title={Effects of L-cysteine and N-acetyl-L-cysteine on 4-hydroxy-2, 5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, and 5-methylfurfural formation and browning in buffer solutions containing either rhamnose or glucose and arginine.},
  author={Einat Haleva-Toledo and M Naim and Uri Zehavi and Russell Rouseff},
  journal={Journal of agricultural and food chemistry},
  year={1999},
  volume={47 10},
  pages={
          4140-5
        }
}
Solutions of L-cysteine (Cys) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (AcCys), containing glucose or rhamnose, with or without arginine, were buffered to pH 3, 5, and 7 and incubated at 70 degrees C for 48 h. Cys and AcCys inhibited the formation of (hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) from glucose and methylfurfural (MF) from rhamnose under acidic conditions. AcCys inhibited the accumulation of 4-hydroxy-2, 5-dimethyl- 3(2H)-furanone (DMHF, Furaneol) from rhamnose, but Cys, under our experimental conditions… 

Isolation and quantification in food of 6-(2-formyl-5-methylpyrrol-1-yl)-l-norleucine (“rhamnolysine”) and its precursor 3,6-dideoxy-l-mannosone

In the Maillard reaction (non-enzymatic browning), reducing carbohydrates react to 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds that may combine with the ε-amino group of lysine to form characteristic pyrrole compounds

Generation of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone from rhamnose as affected by reaction parameters: experimental design approach.

TLDR
Results indicate that rhamnose can be an excellent precursor of HDMF, if the reaction conditions are well mastered, and the effect of phosphate is by far the most important, followed by concentration of precursors and pH.

Natural 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (Furaneol®)

TLDR
During the last years substantial progress has been made in the elucidation of the biological pathway leading to HDMF and DMMF and this review summarizes the latest advances.

Isolation, identification, and formation conditions of a novel Maillard yellowish pigment, pyrrolothiazolate

TLDR
A novel yellow pigment was isolated from a model Maillard reaction system containing l-cysteine, l-lysine, and glucose and identified it as 6-hydroxy-3[R],7a[S]-dimethyl-7-oxo-2,3-dihydropyrrolo[2,1-b]thiazole-3-calboxylic acid, a novel pyrrolothiazole derivative carrying a carboxy group.

Effect of antibrowning agents on browning and intermediate formation in the glucose-glutamic acid model.

TLDR
Citric acid and oxalic acid were identified as the most effective in inhibitors of browning and intermediates, even during storage in air at 30 °C.

Determination of furanic compounds in traditional balsamic vinegars by ion-exclusion liquid chromatography and diode-array detection.

TLDR
In all the 19 samples analyzed, 2-furoic acid, 5 HMF, and furfural are found and the last eluting of these compounds is identified as 5-acethoxymethylfurfural, and, notwithstanding a partial hydrolysis in chromatographic conditions, its quantitation can be carried out.

Effect of temperature and some added compounds on the stability of blood orange marmalade.

TLDR
Study of degradation reactions occurring in blood orange marmalade stored at 20 °C and 35 °C highlights the dependence of anthocyans and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) levels on the storage temperature.

Biological effects of Maillard browning products that may affect acrylamide safety in food: biological effects of Maillard products.

  • M. Friedman
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • 2005
TLDR
The evaluation of biological activities of Maillard products and of other biologically active food ingredients suggests that they could both enhance and/or ameliorate acrylamide toxicity, especially carcinogenicity, but less so neurological or reproductive manifestations.

Biochemical changes of fresh-cut pineapple slices treated with antibrowning agents

Summary The effectiveness of ascorbic acid (AA), isoascorbic acid (IAA) and N-acetyl-cysteine (AC) in inhibiting browning of fresh-cut pineapple slices that were stored for up to 14 days at 10 °C,