Effects of Fare Incentives on New York City Transit Ridership

@article{Hirsch2000EffectsOF,
  title={Effects of Fare Incentives on New York City Transit Ridership},
  author={Lawrence Richard Hirsch and J. David Jordan and Robert L. Hickey and Valdemar Silva Cravo},
  journal={Transportation Research Record},
  year={2000},
  volume={1735},
  pages={147 - 157}
}
Over a period of 3 years starting in 1994, Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) New York City Transit (NYCT) installed automated fare-collection technology systemwide and introduced MetroCard, an electronic fare card capable of storing value and time. Over a single year starting in July 1997, NYCT introduced the following fare incentives: (a) free intermodal transfers, (b) a discount on bulk purchase of value on MetroCard, (c) a reduction in the express bus fare, and (d) 7- and 30-day… 

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