Effects of European Earthworm Invasion on Soil Characteristics in Northern Hardwood Forests of Minnesota, USA

Abstract

European earthworms are colonizing worm-free hardwood forests across North America. Leading edges of earthworm invasion in forests of northern Minnesota provide a rare opportunity to document changes in soil characteristics as earthworm invasions are occurring. Across leading edges of earthworm invasion in four northern hardwood stands, increasing total… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/s10021-005-0066-x

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Cite this paper

@article{Hale2005EffectsOE, title={Effects of European Earthworm Invasion on Soil Characteristics in Northern Hardwood Forests of Minnesota, USA}, author={C. Gordon Hale and Lee E. Frelich and Peter B. Reich and John J. Pastor}, journal={Ecosystems}, year={2005}, volume={8}, pages={911-927} }