Several studies have provided evidence that activation of antigen-specific T cells requires interactions between CD28 on T cells and its ligands, CD80 and CD86, on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). However, the effects of CD80 and CD86 on cytokine production in patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy who receive venom immunotherapy remain unclear. We examined the effects of CD80 and CD86 on Th1- and Th2-cytokine production before and after venom immunotherapy in patients with wasp-venom allergy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from patients with wasp-venom allergy before and after three months of venom immunotherapy. CD4+ T cells and monocytes were isolated as APCs from PBMCs and were cocultured with wasp venom in the presence of anti-CD80 or -CD86 blocking antibodies. Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and interferon (IFN)-gamma were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of CD80 and CD86 on CD14+ PBMCs was detected by fluorescence-activated cell-sorter analysis. The expression of CD86, but not that of CD80, on CD14+ PBMCs cocultured with venom increased after three months of venom immunotherapy, but not before venom immunotherapy. Blockade of CD86 reduced IL-10 production after three months of venom immunotherapy. IL-10 production promoted by CD86 costimulation may be involved in the mechanism of venom immunotherapy in patients with venom allergy.