Methods for the measurement of autoantibodies frequently provide controversial results. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of Spanish Clinical Laboratories in the measurement of anti-Sm antibodies. A total of 23 laboratories participated, analysing 30 serum samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases. The laboratories used four extractable nuclear antigen screens, eight enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) specific for anti-Sm, one line-blot, one dot-blot and one double immunodiffusion assay, from 15 different manufacturers. A total of 871 results were obtained. In general, very good sensitivity was obtained (95-100%), but specificity was moderate (52-86%) and must be improved. Most ELISAs and the line-blot were valid assays for anti-Sm detection and could serve as tests both for analysis and/or confirmation. The likelihood ratios indicated that both methods can be considered very useful or useful for the determination of anti-Sm antibodies. Nevertheless, the analytical quality of the methods for the measurement of anti-Sm antibodies could probably be improved by standardisation of the methods and the participation of laboratories in external quality control programs.