Effectiveness of Wildlife Underpasses and Fencing to Reduce Wildlife–Vehicle Collisions

@inproceedings{Mccollister2010EffectivenessOW,
  title={Effectiveness of Wildlife Underpasses and Fencing to Reduce Wildlife–Vehicle Collisions},
  author={Matthew F. Mccollister and Frank T. van Manen},
  year={2010}
}
Abstract Transportation planners are increasingly incorporating roadway design features to mitigate impacts of highways on wildlife and to increase driver safety. We used camera and track surveys to evaluate wildlife use before and after construction of 3 wildlife underpasses and associated fencing on a new section of United States Highway 64 in Washington County, North Carolina, USA. We recorded 242 occasions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use of underpass areas before highway… 
Mitigating roadway impacts to migratory mule deer—A case study with underpasses and continuous fencing
Wildlife-vehicle collisions pose a major safety concern to motorists and can be a significant source of mortality for wildlife. Additionally, roadways can impede movements and reduce habitat connec-
Roadside Activity and Behavior of White-Tailed Deer and Other Wildlife near Unfenced Underpasses
More than 1.2 million deer–vehicle collisions (DVCs) occurred in the United States in 2014. U.S. highways have thousands of bridges and culverts large enough to facilitate safe passage of large
Enhancing Existing Isolated Underpasses with Fencing Reduces Wildlife Crashes and Connects Habitat
The impact of wildlife–vehicle collisions on drivers and wildlife populations has been gaining attention in the United States. Given the established success of wildlife crossings with fencing in
An Evaluation of Roadside Activity and Behavior of Deer and Black Bear to Determine Mitigation Strategies for Animal-Vehicle Collisions
Virginia is consistently among the top 10 states with the highest number of deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs), with more than 56,000 DVCs per year since 2007. The Virginia Department of Transportation
Assessing changes in clusters of wildlife road mortalities after the construction of wildlife mitigation structures
TLDR
Overall, WRMs/survey day decreased after mitigation structure construction and most hot spots occurred where there were more fence gaps, and, while cluster intensity increased in a few locations, these were not at fence gaps.
Wildlife warning reflectors and white canvas reduce deer–vehicle collisions and risky road‐crossing behavior
Collisions between wildlife and vehicles are detrimental to both wildlife and human safety. A variety of mitigation methods have been deployed with the intent of increasing ungulate awareness of
Influence of underpasses and traffic on white-tailed deer highway permeability†
Highways constitute barriers to wildlife passage, or permeability, which fragment populations and habitats. The degree of barrier effect caused by roadways varies by wildlife species, highway type
Cost-Effective Approach to Reducing Collisions with Elk by Fencing Between Existing Highway Structures
Collisions with large ungulates cause serious human and animal injuries and significant property damage. Therefore, wildlife crossing structures are increasingly included in new road construction to
An evaluation of a mitigation strategy for deer-vehicle collisions
High mule deer Odocoileus hemionus mortality in southwestern Utah led to the establishment of a mitigation strategy with two major objectives: 1) reduction of wildlife-vehicle collisions and 2)
Spatial and temporal evaluation of wildlife-vehicle collisions along the M3 Highway in Hungary
Among linear facilities of transportation networks, highways are special because large-scale traffic and wildlife-fencing represent nearly total barrier effect for wildlife. Analysis of roadkill data
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References

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TLDR
It is found that WVCs were distributed nonrandomly after fencing and were associated with and close to fence ends and methods of modifying motorist behavior and fence design to decrease accident probability at fence ends are recommended.
Impacts of a 4-Lane Highway on the Spatial Ecology of American Black Bears and the Effectiveness of Wildlife Underpasses in Eastern North Carolina
From 2001 through 2005, the North Carolina Department of Transportation rerouted and upgraded a section of U.S. Highway 64 in Washington County to a 4-lane divided highway. This new roadway included
WILDLIFE CROSSING DESIGNS AND USE BY FLORIDA PANTHERS AND OTHER WILDLIFE IN SOUTHWEST FLORIDA
This paper reports the results of a study of two designs of underpasses which were placed to mitigate road kills of the endangered Florida panther. When State Road 84 was converted to Interstate 75,
Deer-Vehicle Collisions: Nationwide Status of State Monitoring Activities and Efforts
We distributed questionnaires to 50 state natural resource agencies in October 1992 to request estimates of deer killed annually on highways, the source of the estimates, and information about
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TLDR
Predictive models of animal–vehicle collision locations should be used at both a landscape level and a local scale during the process of road design and implementation of mitigation measures to improve wildlife survival and road safety.
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Wildlife Underpasses in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada
Abstract: Wildlife crossing structures are intended to increase permeability and habitat connectivity across roads. Few studies, however, have assessed the effectiveness of these mitigation measures
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MULE DEER BEHAVIOR IN RELATION TO FENCING AND UNDERPASSES ON INTERSTATE 80 IN WYOMING
Where Interstate 80 crosses the migration route of approximately 1000 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), there were 37-60 vehicle accidents involving deer each year from 1973 to 1976. A 7.8-mile
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The expansion of highways and roads can fragment natural habitats and thus decrease the viability of ungulate subpopulations. It can also increase the number of vehicle collisions with wildlife.
Evaluation of Wildlife Warning Reflectors for Altering White-Tailed Deer Behavior Along Roadways
Abstract We evaluated the behavioral responses of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to 4 colors of wildlife warning reflectors (red, white, blue-green, and amber) that are purported to
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