Effectiveness of Seeking Safety for Co‐Occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use

  title={Effectiveness of Seeking Safety for Co‐Occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use},
  author={A. Stephen Lenz and Rachel K. Henesy and Karisse A. Callender},
  journal={Journal of Counseling and Development},
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stressor- and trauma-related disorder that can occur at any point within a person's life span (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Although differential diagnostic criteria are implemented for individuals who are above or below age 6 (APA, 2013), PTSD is generally the result of experiencing, witnessing, or learning about a traumatic event. The resulting symptoms of intrusive thoughts, psychological distress, physiological reactions… 

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