Effectiveness of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Reducing Heterosexual Transmission of HIV

@article{Castilla2005EffectivenessOH,
  title={Effectiveness of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Reducing Heterosexual Transmission of HIV},
  author={Jes{\'u}s Castilla and Jorge del Romero and Victoria Hernando and Beatriz Marincovich and Soledad Garc{\'i}a and Carmen Rodr{\'i}guez},
  journal={JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes},
  year={2005},
  volume={40},
  pages={96-101}
}
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been shown to be highly effective in reducing plasma levels of HIV RNA; therefore, these treatments could diminish the risk of transmission. We analyzed 393 steady heterosexual couples, of which one partner had been previously diagnosed with HIV infection (index case) and where the nonindex partner reported his or her sexual relationship with the index case as the unique risk exposure. These couples were consecutively enrolled in the period 1991… 
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ART is a potent intervention for prevention of HIV in discordant couples in which the index partner has ≤550 CD4 cells/µL, and this review confirms the suspected benefit seen in earlier observational studies and reported in more recent ones.
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TLDR
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Late diagnosis of HIV infection: major consequences and missed opportunities.
  • M. Fisher
  • Medicine, Biology
    Current opinion in infectious diseases
  • 2008
TLDR
If the benefits of HAART are to be fully realized, then not only is availability crucial but also those individuals who require treatment must be appropriately identified.
Highly active antiretroviral treatment for the prevention of HIV transmission
TLDR
Building on previous modelling work, an HIV/AIDS epidemic of South African intensity is used to explore the impact of testing all adults annually and starting persons on HAART immediately after they are diagnosed as HIV positive, which would reduce annual HIV incidence and mortality to less than one case per 1000 people within 10 years and it would reduce the prevalence of HIV toLess than 1% within 50 years.
Does antiretroviral therapy prevent HIV transmission to sexual partners?
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The rationale for using highly active antiretroviral therapy to prevent sexual transmission of HIV including its role in prevention strategies at the population level, as well as the cost-effectiveness and potential limitations of this approach are explored.
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