# Effective use of Spearman's and Kendall's correlation coefficients for association between two measured traits

@article{Puth2015EffectiveUO, title={Effective use of Spearman's and Kendall's correlation coefficients for association between two measured traits}, author={Marie-Therese Puth and Markus Neuh{\"a}user and Graeme D. Ruxton}, journal={Animal Behaviour}, year={2015}, volume={102}, pages={77-84} }

We examine the performance of the two rank order correlation coefficients (Spearman's rho and Kendall's tau) for describing the strength of association between two continuously measured traits. We begin by discussing when these measures should, and should not, be preferred over Pearson's product–moment correlation coefficient on conceptual grounds. For testing the null hypothesis of no monotonic association, our simulation studies found both rank coefficients show similar performance to…

## 116 Citations

Confidence intervals for correlations when data are not normal

- Mathematics, MedicineBehavior research methods
- 2017

It is suggested that sample nonnormality can justify avoidance of the Fisher z' interval in favor of a more robust alternative, including the Spearman rank-order and RIN transformation methods.

Measuring and Comparing Student Performance: A New Technique for Assessing Directional Associations

- Computer Science
- 2017

This paper argues in favour of a novel technique, which is mathematical in nature, and whose main idea relies on measuring distance of the actual bivariate data from the class of all monotonic patterns, and describes the herein suggested distance-based technique in detail, and shows its benefits.

What Junior Researchers Must Know Before and After Data Collection: Difference between Parametric and Nonparametric Statistics

- 2017

Often junior researchers face the challenge of inadequate knowledge and skills in statistical techniques because not all academic disciplines teach statistics. Although these researchers are supposed…

Vaccinating against COVID-19: The Correlation between Pro-Vaccination Attitudes and the Belief That Our Peers Want to Get Vaccinated

- MedicineVaccines
- 2021

The correlation between attitude and belief is discussed, not the existence of a causal relation between the two of them, as this study verifies whether there is a strong correlation between the pro-vaccination, against COVID-19 attitude of the respondents and their belief that most of those around them want to be vaccinated against CO VID-19.

Research on the Fusion of Dependent Evidence Based on Rank Correlation Coefficient

- Computer Science, MedicineSensors
- 2017

An innovative evidence fusion model to deal with dependent evidence based on rank correlation coefficient is proposed and total discount coefficient is obtained based on the dependence degree, which also considers the impact of the reliability of evidence.

Synchronicity of global construction cost indexes

- Computer ScienceEngineering, Construction and Architectural Management
- 2019

The co-movement of global CCIs is presented and measuring the changes of CCI synchronicity with time and in different countries pairs are measured, finding that global construction cost indexes have commonly maintained a steady increase for decades, and the CCIs synchronize with each other.

The correlation between player valuation and the bargaining position of clubs in the English premier league (EPL)

- Economics
- 2016

Soccer is perhaps the most loved game in the world, filled with passion both on and off the field. Literature suggests that the English Premier League (EPL) is one of the most sought after…

Multiscale part mutual information for quantifying nonlinear direct associations in networks

- Computer Science, MedicineBioinform.
- 2021

Results showed that the MPMI is an effective alternative measure for quantifying nonlinear direct associations in networks, especially those with multiscale associations.

Two-layer Neighbor Selection Scheme Based on Kendall Correlation Coefficient and Standard Deviation

- Mathematics
- 2019

Collaborative filtering is the basis of the recommendation system. Collaborative filtering generally finds users (neighbors) with the same interests as the target users among a large number of users.…

Copula-Based Bayesian Reliability Analysis of a Product of a Probability and a Frequency Model for Parallel Systems When Components Are Dependent

- Computer Science
- 2021

This study developed a copula-based Bayesian reliability model to formulate dependency between components of a parallel system and to estimate the failure rate of the system.

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 11 REFERENCES

Effective use of Pearson's product–moment correlation coefficient

- MathematicsAnimal Behaviour
- 2014

The calculation of correlation coefficients is widespread in biological research. Often, the null hypothesis of zero correlation is tested and/or confidence intervals for the correlation are…

A comparative analysis of Spearman's rho and Kendall's tau in normal and contaminated normal models

- Mathematics, Computer ScienceSignal Process.
- 2013

This paper analyzes the performances of Spearman's rho (SR) and Kendall's tau (KT) with respect to samples drawn from bivariate normal and contaminated normal populations to provide guidance for choosing which one to use under the circumstances where Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient (PPMCC) fails to apply.

Constructing Confidence Intervals for Spearman’s Rank Correlation with Ordinal Data: A Simulation Study Comparing Analytic and Bootstrap Methods

- Mathematics
- 2008

Spearman’s (1904) rank correlation (rS) is a nonparametric statistic that allows an investigator to describe the strength of an association between two variables X and Y without making the more…

Testing the significance of a correlation with nonnormal data: comparison of Pearson, Spearman, transformation, and resampling approaches.

- Mathematics, MedicinePsychological methods
- 2012

Among transformation approaches, a general purpose rank-based inverse normal transformation was most beneficial, however, when samples were both small and extremely nonnormal, the permutation test often outperformed other alternatives, including various bootstrap tests.

Empirical Size, Coverage, and Power of Confidence Intervals for Spearman's Rho

- Mathematics
- 1997

Several methods of constructing confidence intervals (CIs) for Spearman's rho were tested in a Monte Carlo investigation. A total of 2,000 samples of sizes 10, 50, and 200 were randomly drawn from…

Confidence intervals for gamma-family measures of ordinal association.

- Mathematics, MedicinePsychological methods
- 2007

This research focused on confidence intervals (CIs) for 10 measures of monotonic association between ordinal variables. Standard errors (SEs) were also reviewed because more than 1 formula was…

Sample size requirements for estimating pearson, kendall and spearman correlations

- Mathematics
- 2000

Interval estimates of the Pearson, Kendall tau-a and Spearman correlations are reviewed and an improved standard error for the Spearman correlation is proposed. The sample size required to yield a…

Simulating correlated multivariate nonnormal distributions: Extending the fleishman power method

- 1999

A procedure for generating multivariate nonnormal distributions is proposed. Our procedure generates average values of intercorrelations much closer to population parameters than competing procedures…