Effective population size and patterns of molecular evolution and variation

@article{Charlesworth2009EffectivePS,
  title={Effective population size and patterns of molecular evolution and variation},
  author={Brian Charlesworth},
  journal={Nature Reviews Genetics},
  year={2009},
  volume={10},
  pages={195-205}
}
The effective size of a population, Ne, determines the rate of change in the composition of a population caused by genetic drift, which is the random sampling of genetic variants in a finite population. Ne is crucial in determining the level of variability in a population, and the effectiveness of selection relative to drift. This article reviews the properties of Ne in a variety of different situations of biological interest, and the factors that influence it. In particular, the action of… 
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Methods that use patterns of between-species nucleotide divergence and within-species diversity to estimate positive selection parameters from population genomic data are discussed.
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TLDR
Empirical analyses indicate that variation in substitution rates and patterns caused by differences in Ne is often substantial, however, and must be accounted for in analyses of molecular evolution.
Determinants of genetic diversity
TLDR
Comparative population genomics is on its way to providing a solution to 'Lewontin's paradox' — the discrepancy between the many orders of magnitude of variation in population size and the much narrower distribution of diversity levels.
Quantifying the Variation in the Effective Population Size Within a Genome
TLDR
The amount of variation in the effective population size is quite modest in all species and it is shown that most genes have an Ne that is within a few fold of all other genes, which is sufficient to cause significant differences in the efficiency of natural selection across the genome.
Heterogeneity in effective population size and its implications in conservation genetics and animal breeding
TLDR
The evidence suggests that heterogeneity in Ne can be just as important as heterogeneity in mutation rates in determining levels of genetic diversity throughout the genome, and potential implications for conservation and breeding practices are discussed.
Evolution of the mutation rate.
  • M. Lynch
  • Biology
    Trends in genetics : TIG
  • 2010
Effective sizes and time to migration-drift equilibrium in geographically subdivided populations.
The estimates of effective population size based on linkage disequilibrium are virtually unaffected by natural selection
TLDR
It is shown that the estimates of historical Ne obtained from linkage disequilibrium between markers (NeLD) are virtually unaffected by selection, and those estimates obtained by coalescence mutation-recombination-based methods can be strongly affected by it, which could have important consequences for the estimation of human demography.
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