Effective communication of standard errors and confidence intervals.

  title={Effective communication of standard errors and confidence intervals.},
  author={Thomas A. Louis and Scott Zeger},
  volume={10 1},
When reporting estimates and associated standard errors (ses) or confidence intervals (CIs), the standard formats, “estimate (se)” and “estimate (95% CI: [lower, upper]),” can be confusing in text; in tables they hinder comparisons. Furthermore, some readers can misinterpret the CI format as indicating equal support for all reported values. To remedy these deficits, we recommend formats that (1) improve clarity in text and tables and (2) emphasize that an estimate and its associated uncertainty… CONTINUE READING