Effective Choice in the Prisoner's Dilemma

  title={Effective Choice in the Prisoner's Dilemma},
  author={R. Axelrod},
  journal={Journal of Conflict Resolution},
  pages={25 - 3}
  • R. Axelrod
  • Published 1980
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Conflict Resolution
This is a “primer” on how to play the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game effectively. Existing research approaches offer the participant limited help in understanding how to cope effectively with such interactions. To gain a deeper understanding of how to be effective in such a partially competitive and partially cooperative environment, a computer tournament was conducted for the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. Decision rules were submitted by entrants who were recruited primarily from experts in… Expand

Tables from this paper

More Effective Choice in the Prisoner's Dilemma
This study reports and analyzes the results of the second round of the computer tournament for the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. The object is to gain a deeper understanding of how to perform well inExpand
Maximizing Expected Utilities in the Prisoner's Dilemma
This article reports the results of a computer experiment with iterated prisoner's dilemmas conducted as an interactive tournament of competing strategies and families of strategies. The purposes ofExpand
Expecting Continued Play in Prisoner's Dilemma Games
Several models of prisoner's dilemma interactions were tested in a series of twelve games whose termination point was determined probabilistically. A new model was introduced to discriminate amongExpand
Strategy Choice in the Infinitely Repeated Prisoners’ Dilemma
We use a novel experimental design to identify the subjects' strategies in an infinitely repeated prisoners' dilemma experiment. We ask subjects to design strategies that will play in their place. WeExpand
Effective choice in the single-shot Prisoner's Dilemma tournament
This paper discusses the results of a single-shot Prisoner's Dilemma computer tournament. In the single-shot Prisoner's Dilemma tournament each pair of players interacts only once. But players canExpand
How to resist invasion in the repeated Prisoner's dilemma Game
The evolution of cooperative behavior under conflict situations (Prisoner's Dilemma game) is an unresolved problem of crucial importance for biological and social sciences. Axelrod's (1980a, 1980b,Expand
The Competitions of Forgiving Strategies in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma
The iterated prisoner's dilemma or IPD game has been widely used in modelling interactions among autonomous agents. According to the tournament competitions organized by Axelrod, Tit-for-Tat emergedExpand
The Success of Hyperrational Utility Maximizers in Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma: A Response to Sobel *
Several recent commentators have suggested that for fully rational agents who find themselves in iterated prisoner's dilemmas of indefinite length, co-operation is the rational strategy. TheirExpand
Cooperation in an Infinite-Choice Continuous-Time Prisoner's Dilemma
This study expands the parameters of the classic Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) by testing an infinite-choice, continuous-time paradigm. A total of48 subjects were presented with a scenario that maintainedExpand
Exploring the Effect of Proximity and Kinship on Mutual Cooperation in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma
An analysis of the evolution of reciprocal cooperation in a dynamically simulated environment in which individual agents are free to move in space, interacting with their nearest neighbors in fixed-length IPD games. Expand


A differential approach to the repeated prisoner's dilemma
The repeated prisoner's dilemma game is converted into a differential game by assuming that the players, instead of making decisions individually for each repetition of the prisoner's dilemma game,Expand
Game theory, behavior, and the paradox of the Prisoner's Dilemma: three solutions
Abstract : The Prisoners' Dilemma game is a deceptively simple 2 x 2 matrix game which can be used to illustrate the value and the limitations of game theoretic thinking. Its simplicity makes it mostExpand
Newcomb's Problem and Prisoners' Dilemma
The relationship between Newcomb's problem, which involves an apparent paradox of prediction, and Prisoners' Dilemma is explicated. After describing a resolution to Newcomb's problem, due to John A.Expand
Collective action as an agreeable N-prisoners''dilemma
The problem of collective action to produce a group collective good is analyzed as the game of Individual vs. Collective and then as an n-person game to show that, under the constraints of MancurExpand
Information processing complexity and gaming behavior: The prisoner's dilemma
The interpretation of prisoner's dilemma (PD) research is often difficult due to conflicting and/or mixed results. In examining variables other than the payoff matrices, two lines of research haveExpand
Self-sacrifice, Cooperation and Aggression in Women of Varying Sex-role Orientations
Definition of women’s role is debated in the field of psychology and in the population at large. Whether women are passive and self-sacrificing or are, like men, also assertive and aggressive, andExpand
The effects of information processing complexity and interpersonal cue availability on strategic play in a mixed‐motive game1
A 60-trial iterated PDG was played by 24 male undergraduates. Half were Abstract Information Processors, and half were Concrete Information Processors. In addition, half of the subject pairs playedExpand
The Effect of Westernization on Cooperative Behaviour in Central Africa
Abstract The traditional ethos of Central African societies emphasises cooperation and sharing. In a Prisoner's Dilemma game, traditional Tonga men and women in Zambia played more cooperatively thanExpand
“Prisoner's Dilemma” and “Chicken” Models in International Politics
This is a preprint of an article published in International Studies Quarterly, published by Oxford University Press.
A New and Superior Process for Making Social Choices
This paper describes and elaborates a process first discovered by Edward H. Clarke that motivates individuals to reveal their true preferences for public goods. The essence of the process is thatExpand