Effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of interventional studies
Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide. To reduce its risk and progression, preventive strategies are needed. Vitamin supplementation such as vitamin D is one of the strategies. This study was designed to investigate the effect of injection of vitamin D on insulin resistance and anthropometric parameters in T2DM. This randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted with 42 diabetic patients in two groups; intervention group with single intramuscular injection of 300,000 International Unit (IU) of vitamin D3 and the placebo group. After recording demographic and anthropometric factors (waist circumference, blood pressure and body mass index), fasting blood samples was taken for measurement of blood glucose, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD3), insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and estimation of Homeostasis Model Assessment Index (HOMA) in two times; before study and after three months. Two groups had similar baseline characteristics (each group = 21 subjects). Three months after vitamin D injection, HbA1c, anthropometric factors and HOMA index in intervention group stayed constant, however, serum 25- OHD3 was significantly increased (p = 0.007). The present data is not convincing and further studies with large sample sizes are needed to show the definite effect of injection of vitamin D on control of diabetes and its risk.