The data on the stimulating action of S. aureus cells, strains B-243, 2287, Wood-46, Cowan I, as well as cell-wall peptidoglycan, on the formation of endogenous colonies in the spleen of sublethally irradiated mice are presented. Teichoic acid, S. aureus ribosomal and cytoplasmic antigens produced no such effect. Whole S. aureus cells and their components were incapable of activating transitory colonies in the spleen of sublethally irradiated mice. After immunization with cell walls, peptidoglycan and protein A the mice showed a rise in the absolute and relative content of blood-forming stem cells in the marrow and the spleen. Killed S. aureus cells increased the relative content of blood-forming stem cells in the marrow, while in the spleen a rise in both absolute and relative content of such cells occurred, which was detected in the exocolonization test.