The objective of this study was to determine the effect of BVD virus on the rabbit's endometrium. Six New Zealand White does (3-4 kg bwt) were used. Blood samples were obtained before treatment and euthanasia for determination of estrogen and progesterone. Does were anesthetized and both uterine horns identified through a midventral incision. Each horn was doubly-ligated at both cervical and ovarian ends. The right uterine horn (control) was injected with 1 ml Eagle's MEM and the left (treated) with 1 ml BVD virus (Singer strain, 10(3) CCID50/ml). Two does each were euthanized at 48 h, 72 h and 144 h post-inoculation (PI) and uterine samples obtained for viral assay and light microscopic examination. Serum hormonal levels showed that all does were in the estrogenic phase before treatment and euthanasia. Viral isolation was negative for all samples taken. On each day examined, there were no histopathologic lesions in the control uterine horn. However, in the treated horn at 48 h PI there was evidence of a purulent endometritis. At 72 h and 144 h PI there was mononuclear cell infiltration of the stratum compactum, but no other obvious lesions. A common feature in both treated and control uterine horns was mitosis of both endometrial and glandular epithelia. Results of this study suggest that BVD virus can induce histopathologic lesions of the rabbit's endometrium, the most obvious effect being at 48 h PI.