We synthesized six Ru-bipyridyl complexes having di-, tetra-, and hexacarboxylate (C2, C4, and C6) and di-, tetra-, and hexaphosphonate (P2, P4, and P6) as the anchoring group, prepared six different sensitized TiO2 samples by using them, and then systematically tested their visible light reactivity for hydrogen production in aqueous suspension (with EDTA as an electron donor) under lambda > 420 nm illumination. The properties and efficiencies of C- and P-complexes as a sensitizer depended on the number and kind of anchoring groups in very different ways. The adsorption of P-complexes on TiO2 is strong enough not to be hampered by the presence of competing adsorbates (EDTA), whereas that of C-complexes is significantly inhibited. As a result, P-TiO2 exhibited much higher activity for the hydrogen production than C-TiO2, although the visible light absorbing capabilities are comparable among C- and P-complexes. Among the six sensitizers, P2 was the most active one for the H2 production. The hydrogen production activities of C-TiO2 and P-TiO2 depended on the concentration of sensitizers and electron donors in different ways as well. How the sensitizing activity for hydrogen production is influenced by the anchoring group and the experimental conditions was investigated and discussed in detail. It is also notable that the effects of the anchoring group on the sensitized production of hydrogen were drastically different from those on the dye-sensitized solar cell we recently reported for the same set of six sensitizers.