Prostaglandin F(2alpha) is used in dairy herd management because of its luteolytic properties and for its direct effect on the myometrium in cows diagnosed with endometritis. Prostaglandin E(2) has a contractile effect on the bovine uterus. In human medicine, prostaglandin E(2) is routinely used to maintain labor and to ripen the cervix. We hypothesized, that a combination of prostaglandin F(2alpha) and prostaglandin E(2) would provoke a long-lasting increase in intrauterine pressure (IUP) and uterine motility as compared to either prostaglandin group. Intrauterine pressure was recorded during the diestrus of eight lactating dairy cows using a transcervically placed intraluminal pressure microtransducer. After recording of physiologic uterine motility for 30min, prostaglandins (DL-cloprostenol, PGE(2), PGE(2) in combination with D-cloprostenol) or placebo were administered, followed by a 2h recording period. Significant differences were found for the area under the curve, the mean amplitude and the intrauterine pressure, whereas the number of pressure waves did not differ significantly among treatments. Peak values for area under the curve and mean amplitude were found during the first 15min for the combination of PGE(2) and D-cloprostenol. During the last 15min of the recording session, area under the curve and mean amplitude were increased only for the combination of PGE(2) and D-cloprostenol as compared to placebo. Although PGF(2alpha) and PGE(2) provoke an increase in intrauterine pressure, only their combination guarantees a significant effect over a 2h recording period.