High-fibre diets offer several beneficial health effects. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether replacement of 30 % of the available carbohydrates with polydextrose (PDX) or soluble maize fibre (SCF) at breakfast and lunch would result in an increased fat oxidation rate and satiety, which may be of relevance for body weight control and diabetes prevention. In a single-blind, randomised cross-over study, eighteen overweight men and women underwent four different dietary interventions, which consisted of a PDX diet, a SCF diet and two control diets (full energetic and isoenergetic, comparable with PDX with respect to g or energy percentage of macronutrients, respectively). Glycaemic profile, energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were measured for 24 h in a respiration chamber. Circulating insulin, NEFA and TAG concentrations were determined over a 14 h period during daytime. Appetite ratings were assessed using visual analogue scales. The replacement of available carbohydrates with PDX or SCF reduced the peak glucose response, which was accompanied by reduced postprandial insulin responses. Moreover, higher concentrations of circulating NEFA were observed after consumption of both fibre diets, which were accompanied by an increased fat oxidation over 24 h. This effect was mainly attributed to the lower energetic value of the fibre diets and not to the fibres per se. Besides increasing fat oxidation, PDX exerted a pronounced suppressive effect on appetite ratings. The replacement of available carbohydrates with PDX may be of special interest because of its beneficial effects on metabolic profile and it may affect body weight control in the long term.