Effect of organic fertilizer on plankton primary productivity in fish ponds
Theeffect of pig dung, as pond manure [at 18 and 36 tha−1 yr−1] and as fish feed ingredient[replacing traditional diet composed of solvent extracted rice bran and mustardcake (1:1) at 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels], was observed on water quality, pondproductivity and survival and growth of carp in polyculture system during winter(12–18 °C) and summer (18–36 °C)months. The studies on water quality parameters viz pH, dissolved oxygen andalkalinity revealed that pig dung even at higher levels (both as manure and /oras feed ingredient) did not deteriorate the quality of water, as all the waterparameters remained within the optimum ranges required for carps. The nutrient(phosphates and nitrates) status of water was significantly better in pondsreceiving pig dung as pond manure at 36 tha−1 yr−1. Pond productivity in terms ofplankton production (phyto and zooplankton) was also significantly higher innutrient rich water (36 tha−1 yr−1) both during winter andsummer. Further, in all the ponds (including control) phytoplankton levels weresignificantly higher during winter and zooplankton was higher during summer. Thestudies revealed 100% survival of all the fish species in all the treatments.During winter, the growth of carp was higher in treatments where pig dung wasused as feed ingredient (at 25% level), whereas during summer growth was higherwhere pig dung was used either as pond manure and/or as feed ingredient (athigher levels). Further, among carps, the growth of Indian major carps vizCatla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinamrigala was higher during summer and that of exotic carps vizCyprinus carpio and Ctenophayrengodonidella was higher during winter.