Effect of pharmaceutical interventions targeting thromboxane receptors and thromboxane synthase in cardiovascular and renal diseases.
The present review focuses on the roles of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) in arterial thrombosis, atherogenesis, vascular stent-related ischemic events and renal proteinuria. Particular emphasis is laid on therapeutic interventions targeting the TxA2 (TP) receptors and TxA2 synthase (TS), including dual TP-receptor antagonists and TS inhibitors. Their significant inhibitory efficacies on arterial thrombogenesis, atherogenesis, restenosis after stent placement, vasoconstriction and proteinuria indicate novel and improved treatments for cardiovascular and selected renal diseases. New therapeutic interventions of the TxA2 pathway may also be beneficial for patients with poor biological antiplatelet drug response, for example, to aspirin and/or clopidogrel. These new TP/TS agents offer novel improved treatments to efficiently and simultaneously interfere with thrombogenesis and atherogenesis, and to enlarge the existing panel of platelet inhibitors for efficient prophylaxis and treatment of arterial thrombosis and renal proteinuria.