PURPOSE Surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) improves bone metabolism. Osteocalcin (OC) and its undercarboxylated form (ucOC) are associated with bone and energy metabolism. Osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional protein expressed in bone, is involved in resorption, along with β-carboxyl-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen (β-CTX), and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Our aim was to investigate these biomarkers of bone metabolism in patients with PHPT. METHODS We examined 30 individuals with PHPT, in a clinical research facility, before and 1 month following parathyroidectomy. Circulating levels of OC, ucOC, OPN, β-CTX, and OPG were examined as bone biomarkers along with inflammatory markers (e.g., interleukin-6 [IL-6], lipocalin-2), insulin resistance (i.e., homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]), adiposity (i.e., leptin, adiponectin), PTH, calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, creatinine, and demographics. RESULTS Participants (27 females/3 males) were 60 ± 9 (mean±SD) years old. There was a significant reduction of ucOC (7.9 ± 5.1 [median±SIQR] vs. 6.6 ± 3.7 ng/mL, p = 0.022) and OPN (75.4 ± 14.5 vs. 54.5 ± 9.2 ng/mL, p < 0.001) pre- versus post-parathyroidectomy. There were no univariate differences postoperatively for IL-6, HOMA-IR, leptin, or adiponectin. Regression analysis showed that postoperative levels of adiponectin, IL-6, and OPN were significantly associated with ucOC, while adjusting for PTH and albumin corrected calcium levels (model R2 = 0.610, p = 0.001). With OPN as the dependent variable, higher adiponectin and lower ucOC were significantly associated with lower OPN levels postoperatively (model R2 = 0.505, p = 0.010). CONCLUSION The lower 1-month postoperative OPN and ucOC levels in PHPT seem to indicate reduced bone resorption. Decreased ucOC levels may also suggest lower energy demands postoperatively.