Effect of oral administration of zanapezil (TAK-147) for 21 days on acetylcholine and monoamines levels in the ventral hippocampus of freely moving rats.

@article{HatipAlKhatib2005EffectOO,
  title={Effect of oral administration of zanapezil (TAK-147) for 21 days on acetylcholine and monoamines levels in the ventral hippocampus of freely moving rats.},
  author={Izzettin Hatip-Al-Khatib and Katsunori Iwasaki and Yoshitaka Yoshimitsu and Takashi Arai and Nobuaki Egashira and Kenichi Mishima and Tomoaki Ikeda and Michihiro Fujiwara},
  journal={British journal of pharmacology},
  year={2005},
  volume={145 8},
  pages={1035-44}
}
Zanapezil (TAK-147 (3-[1benzylpiperdin-4-yl]-1-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 H-1-benzazepin-8-yl) propan-1-one fumarate)) is a selective acetylcholine (ACh) esterase inhibitor under investigation as a drug for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment. In this study, the effects of TAK-147 at 2 mg kg(-1) p.o. for 21 days, compared to donepezil (E2020), on the levels of ACh, catecolamines and indoleamines were investigated in the ventral hippocampus (VH) of freely moving rats by microdialysis-high-performance… CONTINUE READING

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On the other hand , E2020 decreased ratios of HVA : DA , DOPAC : DA ( prior to the last dose ) , and 5-HIAA : 5-HT ( 90 - 180 min after the last dose ) .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
TAK-147 decreased HVA : DA ratio , but only marginally decreased DOPAC : DA and 5-HIAA : 5-HT ratios .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
TAK-147 decreased HVA : DA ratio , but only marginally decreased DOPAC : DA and 5-HIAA : 5-HT ratios .
On the other hand , E2020 decreased ratios of HVA : DA , DOPAC : DA ( prior to the last dose ) , and 5-HIAA : 5-HT ( 90 - 180 min after the last dose ) .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
AcetylcholineSibling in is aSerotonin
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
SerotoninSibling in is aAcetylcholine
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
DopamineSibling in is aEpinephrine
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
EpinephrineSibling in is aDopamine
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
DopamineSibling in is aNorepinephrine
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
NorepinephrineSibling in is aDopamine
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The increase of the monoamines levels , in addition to that on the ACh , and decrease of their oxidation could be of value in the treatment of the AD , other dementic diseases and the cohort neurological disorders depending on the type of the monoamine underlying the disorder .
The increase of the monoamines levels , in addition to that on the ACh , and decrease of their oxidation could be of value in the treatment of the AD , other dementic diseases and the cohort neurological disorders depending on the type of the monoamine underlying the disorder .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
The results revealed that the VH contains 92.05+/-21.97 fmol 20 microl(-1 ) ACh and the following monoamines levels ( pg 30 microl(-1 ) ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) 1.92+/-0.39 , epinephrine ( Epi ) 1.91+/-0.183 , 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol ( MHPG ) 11.53+/-3.22 , normetanephrine 3.26+/-0.61 , dopamine ( DA ) 0.77+/-0.23 , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) 3.37+/-1.01 , homovanillic acid ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid ; HVA ) 4.04+/-0.93 , 3-methoxytyramine 0.64+/-0.13 , serotonin ( 5-HT ) 0.73+/-0.16 and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) 313.15+/-18.42 .
donepezilNo subtypeE 2020
for 21 days , compared to donepezil ( E2020 ) , on the levels of ACh , catecolamines and indoleamines were investigated in the ventral hippocampus ( VH ) of freely moving rats by microdialysis - high - performance liquid chromatography .
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