Effect of noise type and level on focus related fundamental frequency changes

  title={Effect of noise type and level on focus related fundamental frequency changes},
  author={Martti Vainio and Daniel Aalto and Antti Suni and Anja Arnhold and Tuomo Raitio and Henri Seijo and Juhani J{\"a}rvikivi and Paavo Alku},
Speech in noise, or Lombard speech, is characterized by increased intensity and higher fundamental frequency as well as lengthened segmental durations as speakers try to maintain a beneficial signal-to-noise ratio to fill both communicative and self-monitoring requirements. The phenomenon has been studied with regard to different noise types and different noise levels, as well as with respect to different communicative tasks (e.g., reading out loud vs. speaking to a real listener). However… CONTINUE READING
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