Study on the Association among Mycotoxins and other Variables in Children with Autism
Activities of mycotoxins--citrinin, ochratoxin B, rubratoxin B, and zearalenol beta--that affected superoxide anion (O2-) production were studied on human neutrophils with regard to hypochlorous acid (HOCl) generation, nitric oxide (NO) formation, and chemotaxis of isolated cells. At the doses of 10(-8), 10(-6), 10(-4), or 10(-2) mg/mL, in stimulated cells the mycotoxins inhibited HOCl production proportionally to that of O2- because HOCl production is directly dependent on O2- generation. But unlike the others, zearalenol beta decreased HOCl production much more than one of O2-, indicating an effect also on myeloperoxidase secretion. All mycotoxins inhibited NO generation but only at the dose of 10(-2) mg/mL. Formyl-met-leu-phe-induced chemotaxis of neutrophils was deeply affected as well, as all mycotoxins at all doses used decreased it. All considered effects were not dose-dependent, likely connected to high variability of individual sensitivity to these compounds and because they already are present in blood introduced with foods. These activities of neutrophils confirm and extend the danger for immune systems by mycotoxins also in very small quantities, since the smaller concentrations we used are easily reachable in blood.