Effect of macroscopic air bubbles on cell lysis by shock wave lithotripsy in vitro.


In studies of cells or stones in vitro, the material to be exposed to shock waves (SWs) is commonly contained in plastic vials. It is difficult to remove all air bubbles from such vials. Because SWs reflect at an air-fluid interface, and because existing gas bubbles can serve as nuclei for cavitation events, we sought to determine in our system whether the… (More)